Since the 1980s, there have been thousands of scientific papers on brain SPECT imaging for evaluating many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The Amen Clinics’ Research Library contains our own scientific research along with abstracts from thousands of studies conducted in the U.S. and around the world.


#Patients/Healthy First Author Study Date Type Comments
74 Ftd McMurtray 2006 SPECT Patients with Ftd can initially present with further regional differences in clinical diagnostic features, such as apathy with bifrontal hypoperfusion and hypomania-like behaviors with anterior temporal involvement.
51 AD receiving Donepezil Shimizu 2006 SPECT Study suggests that the diversity of clinical responses to Donepezil therapy in patients with AD is associated with rCBF changes, mainly in the frontal lobe.
22 Ftd/76 normals Nakano 2006 SPECT The functional decline of orbitofrontal cortex is related to antisocial behavioral symptoms in patients with Ftd.
31 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Borroni 2006 ECD SPECT The pattern of hypo perfusion ECD SPECT and the severity of memory deficits predict the risk of progression to probable AD dementia in MCI subjects.
74 Ftd Mendez 2006 SPECT Early temporal involvement is associated with frivolous behavior and right temporal involvement is associated with emotional disturbances. In contrast, those with right frontal disease may present with alterations in non-verbal behavior.
19 PD receiving ChEIs treatment Ceravolo 2006 ECD SPECT Our data confirm the efficiency of ChEIs in the treatment of dementia associated with PD mainly on attention and executive functions. The functional findings indicate that this cognitive improvement could be associated with a sort of pharmacological frontal “re-afferentation”.
75 AD/31 normals Nagao 2006 HMPAO Posterior limbic FD may be useful for easily and objectively distinguishing patients with very early AD from aging people.
61 AD/61 normals Hirao 2006 SPECT Results indicate that rCBF changes in the posterior cingulate cortex may be closely related to those in the entorhinal cortex in patients with AD, supporting the “remote effect” hypothesis.
20 AD Kalman 2005 HMPAO The decreased vascular responsiveness to sodium lactate reflects disturbed vasoregulatory processes in AD and it’s unlikely that lactate would have any relevance in the treatment of AD-related cerebral hypoperfusion, but could be used to improve the value of SPECT in the diagnosis of AD.
19 DLB/39 AD Hanyu 2005 123I-IMP SPECT/MIGB myocardial scintigraphy MIBG myocardial scintigraphy may provide a powerful diagnostic tool when it is difficult to distinguish cases of DLB from AD using SPECT.
15 PD/14 DLB O’Brien 2005 HMPAO We have identified important neural correlates of key clinical features in DLB and suggest that the associations can be understood through the influence of the cholinergic system on attention.
19 Ftd Chapman 2005 SPECT Discourse methods may be systematized to provide an efficient adjunct measure beyond the traditional word and sentential level measures.
1 AD Kawarabayashi 2005 ECD SPECT SPECT is a useful tool to predict the progress of the disease because the decrease of blood flow was recognized before the progression to corticobasal degeneration.
29 AD Nobili 2005 SPECT Assessing the relationships between neuropsychology and brain functional imaging is a key approach to clarify the pathophysiology of cognitive failure in AD.
10 PD Sestini 2005 SPECT Long-term STN stimulation leads to improvement in neural activity in the frontal motor/associative areas.
34 mild late-onset AD/20 early-onset AD/15 DLB/31 normals Kemp 2005 HMPAO Statistical parametric maps appear to be considerably more reliable than simple visual interpretation of HMPAO images for these regions.
30 PD Osaki 2005 SPECT Although the presence of dementia showed a significant relationship with the bilateral posterior cingulate areas, perfusion in the frontal bases, temporal bases, or parietal lobes was markedly more reduced than that seen in the bilateral posterior cingulate areas.
15 PD receiving Levodopa Schillaci 2005 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT Study suggests that Levodopa does not affect 123I-FP-CIT brain imaging and confirms that it is not necessary to withdraw this medication to measure DAT levels with SPECT.
20 PD while on neuroleptic agents/10 normals Lorberboym 2005 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT Imaging with FP-CIT helps to determine whether DIP is entirely drug-induced or an exacerbation of subclinical PD.
29 PD/18 normals Filippi 2005 Semi-quantitative 123I-FP-CIT SPECT Semi-quantitative analysis may be used to diagnose PD at an early stage as well as to identify individuals developing bilateral dopaminergic damage.
38 PD/18 normals Geng 2005 trODAT-1 SPECT trODAT-1 SPECT imaging may serve as a useful method for improving the correct diagnosis of PD.
20 DLB/20 PD/15 PDD/22 normals Colloby 2005 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT Dementia severity and motor impairment were correlated with decline, suggesting that dopaminergic loss may play an important role in cognitive and motor features.
22 AD/10 normals Gungor 2005 HMPAO Results indicated that alterations in ERPs could be a finding that occurred earlier than the deterioration in cerebral blood flow. We thought that precuneus is closely related to cognitive function and may have an important role in the pathophysiology of AD.
18 AD/18 normals Sundstrom 2005 SPECT Memory provocation increased the sensitivity of rCBF-SPECT for the detection of AD-related blood flow changes in the brain at the group level. If a higher sensitivity for AD at the individual level is needed, a single SPECT study might be sufficient in the clinical setting.
24 suspected dementia Dobert 2005 PET/SPECT PET was the superior imaging method, especially in the detection of early AD or MIX.
369 cognitive dysfunction Staffen 2005 SPECT High experienced visual assessment of cerebral perfusion scans using SPECT provides a useful additional tool in diagnosis of cognitive impairment.
52 PD/10 normals Matsui 2005 123I-IMP SPECT Occipital hypoperfusion was closely correlated to dementia in PD compared to frontal, parietal and temporal perfusion.
110 Ortega 2005 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT Generally an adequate agreement between clinical diagnosis and SPECT-FP-CIT was observed.
69 PD/16 DLB/15 AD/24 normals Kasama 2005 SPECT SPECT appears to be useful in the detection of cortical lesions and the differential diagnosis of patients with cognitive impairment.
76 mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/57 normals Hirao 2005 SPECT Initial rCBF SPECT studies of individuals with MCI may be useful in predicting who will convert to AD in the near future.
17 PDD/18 DLB/34 normals Firbank 2005 HMPAO The increase in striatal perfusion may be a compensatory change related to decreasing striatal dopaminergic input from the substantia nigra in PDD and DLB, consistent with the increased predominance of rigidity over tremor symptoms in these groups compared with non-demented PD.
80 AD Moren 2005 SPECT Data indicated that patients with left hemisphere perfusion deficits tended to have poorer neuropsychological skills than did individuals with right hemisphere perfusion deficits, diffuse perfusion deficits, and no perfusion deficits.
6 DLB/7 PDD/21 PD/12 AD/12 normals Mito 2005 123I-IMP SPECT Regional differences suggest disease-specific combinations of underlying pathological and neurochemical processes.
20 PD/21 CBD Kreisler 2005 HMPAO Semiautomatic classification may be a precious tool for reinforcing the current clinical differential diagnosis of CBD and PD.
27 PD/12 essential tremor (ET)/10 normals Wang 2005 trODAT-1 SPECT trODAT-1 SPECT can detect the dysfunction of nigrostriatal system in patients with early PD.
25 MSA/130 PD/48 normals Swanson 2005 trODAT-1 SPECT MSA patients had significantly higher trODAT-1 binding, particularly in the posterior putamen, compared with PD patients and controls.
13 AD with wandering behavior/13 AD w/o wandering behavior/13 normals Rolland 2005 ECD SPECT Wandering behavior could be facilitated by specific patterns of cerebral blood flow. Wandering, as a physical activity, could also enhance the recruitment of the cortical network.
11 AD Boundy 2005 HMPAO Study provides further evidence of the involvement of the posterior cingulate region and of muscarinic receptors in early AD.
14 AD Olazaran 2005 SPECT/DSC-MR DSC-MR imaging was concordant with SPECT at the different cerebral lobes of AD patients.
18 AD/10 normals Trollor 2005 SPECT SPECT has utility in the diagnostic assessment of AD if standardized and semi quantitative techniques are used.
35 AD/31 normals Kubota 2005 SPECT/MRI Thin-section hippocampal MRI and 3D-SSP image sets had potentially equivalent value for the diagnosis of AD, and they were superior to SPECT and MRI.
36 AD/30 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Vogel 2005 HMPAO Impaired awareness is associated with behavioral symptoms and may reflect functional impairment in the right inferior frontal cortex.
132 AD Liao 2005 HMPAO Cognitive reserve effect starts at the low end of the education range. The main effect of more education is a more facile use of alternative brain circuits instead of locally increased synaptic connections.
16 AD van Rhijn SJ 2004 SPECT Neuropathological distribution typically seen in AD corresponds to impairments in specific aspects of intermediate visual perceptual processing, and it is related to the daily living skills of patients with AD.
21 DLB/19 PD/16 normals Walker 2004 123I-FP-CIT SPECT DLB patients do not have the characteristic selective degeneration of ventrolateral nigral neurons seen in PD.
29 PD/28 restless leg syndrome (RLS)/23 normals Linke 2004 SPECT Found no common characteristics between RLS patients and patients with PD detectable by SPECT.
42 cognitive impairment Cabranes 2004 ECD SPECT The combination of functional imaging and neuropsychological tests can diagnose with high sensitivity and specificity if a patient is suffering cognitive impairment and may aid in predicting the risk of developing dementia.
7 DLB/20 normals Ishii 2004 PET/123I-IMP SPECT PET is thought to be superior to SPECT in detecting functional changes in the DLB brain.
17 AD/10 Ftd Lipton 2004 SPECT/MRI/CT Of the neuro-imaging modalities utilized, SPECT was the most sensitive in detecting lateralization.
1 schizophrenia Kimura 2004 SPECT/MRI In this patient the dysfunction seemed to arise from an intrinsic disorder of the frontal lobe, because frontal lobe abnormalities were conspicuous, whereas the temporal lobe was almost normal on both MRI and SPECT.
40 AD/13 Ftd/3 with other types of dementia Kaneko 2004 HMPAO/3D-SSP Posterior cingulate hypoperfusion was considered to be specific to AD, and this finding was thought to be useful to diagnose AD patients.
50 PD Dujardin 2004 SPECT Even though both cognitive and rCBF parameters help predict the progression of PD patients, it appears that the contribution of cognitive assessment is greater than that of rCBF measurement.
81 PD/15 multiple system atrophy (MSA)/44 normals Van Laere 2004 ECD SPECT ECD SPECT shows detailed differences between PD and MSA. It is able to elucidate cerebral perfusion, correlates disease severity, dopamine agonist medication, and cognitive performance.
20 AD/20 Ftd Bonte 2004 HMPAO The posterior cingulate sign indicates the presence of AD; it is absent in frontotemporal disease, thus serving as a differential diagnostic sign.
15 AD Lee 2004 HMPAO/Cognitive Ability Screening Instruments (CASI) Correlation was demonstrated between the list-generating fluency CASI sub-score and perfusion of the left fusiform gyrus. The visual construction sub-score was significantly correlated with perfusion of the right superior and medial frontal gyri.
16 AD receiving Donepezil Rodriguez 2004 HMPAO/EEG Metabolic activation induced by AChEIs may especially influence the posterior parietal region, which could be one of the pathophysiological substrates of the cognitive effects of AChEIs.
72 cognitive impairment Tang 2004 ECD SPECT/3D-SSP Addition of 3D-SSP to the transaxial section display of ECD-SPECT improves the reproducibility and the diagnostic performance in respect of AD in patients with cognitive impairment and provides a valid tool for assessment of the severity of cortical perfusion abnormalities in such patients.
33 normals/34 AD/23 DLB/38 PD/36 PD and dementia O’Brien 2004 123I-IMP SPECT Dopamine transporter loss can be detected in vivo using SPECT in DLB.
70 AD receiving Donepezil Tanaka 2004 SPECT Study suggested usefulness of SPECT in the prediction of behavioral response to Donepezil among AD patients.
38 AD/76 normals Imabayashi 2004 SPECT The ability of 3D-SSP to discriminate patients with very early AD from control subjects is superior to that of visual inspection. It is clinically useful and reliable to adopt the use of 3D-SSP as an adjunct to visual interpretation.
49 AD Lanctot 2004 SPECT In this sample of patients with AD, the right middle medial temporal region emerged as an important neural correlate of aggression.
30 AD Benoit 2004 ECD SPECT Cognitive, behavioral and affective components of motivation are mediated by different fronto-sub-cortical circuits and are differently lateralized.
61 AD/61 normals Kanetaka 2004 SPECT Result suggests that early diagnosis of AD requires partial volume correction in a SPECT study.
33 Ftd Brunel 2003 ECD SPECT/CT In the frontal inferior form, behavioral disturbances were correlated to the intensity of frontal inferior hypoperfusion, corresponding to an orbito-frontal dysfunction. In the frontal superior form, psycho-affective disturbances were correlated with frontal superior hypoperfusion. Finally, in global and frontal inferior SPECT forms, language disturbances were correlated with a frontal inferior hypoperfusion.
18 vascular dementia (VaD)/18 normals Yoshikawa 2003 HMPAO In the VaD group, cognitive function was shown to decline as the fractal dimension increased and images became more heterogeneous.
8 PD Sakai 2003 123I-IMP SPECT/3D-SSP 3D-SSP images of 123I-IMP SPECT are more sensitive in detecting rCBF of the medial aspect of the parietal cortex than the standard transaxial images, and can be used as a diagnostic tool to objectively evaluate the cognitive function of PD patients.
82 mild cognitive impairment (MCI)/20 normals Huang 2003 HMPAO Clinical heterogeneity of MCI is reflected in different patterns of psychological and CBF changes. Combined SPECT investigation and neuropsychological testing might predict the future development of dementia in patients with MCI.
32 AD/22 vascular dementia (VaD)/20 normals Yoshikawa 2003 HMPAO 3D fractal analysis enabled a simple and objective evaluation of the heterogeneity of CBF in patients with AD and VaD.
24 PD Pirker 2003 123I-CIT-SPECT Data does not suggest substantial change in the course of dopaminergic degeneration in PD within the first 5 to 7 years after symptom onset.
20 mild AD/20 moderate AD/20 normals Lee 2003 HMPAO Cerebral hypoperfusion in the left lower parietal area was found in mild AD patients. In moderate AD patients significant cerebral hypoperfusion was located in bilateral posterior parietotemporal cortices, contiguous anterior occipital lobes, and posterior cingulate gyri and in frontal areas.
50 AD/40 normals Honda 2003 ECD SPECT/3D-SSP 3D-SSP enhanced performance of the nuclear medicine physicians inspecting SPECT. Performance of the automated diagnosis exceeded that of the physicians inspecting SPECT with and without 3D-SSP.
1 Giovanello 2003 SPECT/MRI Disruptions in left temporal regions associated with semantic processing may be sufficient to produce a selective deficit in person-specific knowledge.
41 AD- 33 treated with ChE-I, 8 untreated Lojkowska 2003 SPECT Increased levels of acetylcholine in the brain after ChE-I treatment may support the cholinergic regulation of rCBF, and in result increase it.
79 AD Hanyu 2003 SPECT Patients with younger AD had a more severe decrease of rCBF in the parietotemporal and posterior cingulate cortex, while patients with older AD had a more severe decrease of rCBF in the medial temporal region and medial frontal lobe.
23 AD/55 normals Sakamoto 2003 SPECT Study suggests that the APOE epsilon 4 allele is associated with the faster progression of AD, and PVE correction may be necessary for accurate assessments of SPECT studies of AD.
20 early onset AD/44 late onset AD Kemp 2003 HMPAO Late onset patients tend to present with the characteristic involvement of the medial temporal lobes producing marked memory loss whereas early onset patients present with predominant posterior cortical association area involvement.
13 AD Tonini 2003 HMPAO This method might be of potential advantage for the early diagnosis of AD and for its differentiation from stable cognitive impairments.
42 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Encinas 2003 ECD SPECT Study shows that RBF patterns in the right and left prefrontal, right and left frontal and left parietal areas are sensitive early markers of progression towards AD.
56 who did not develop AD after study/27 who did develop AD after study/17 normals El Fakhri 2003 HMPAO/MRI Measures of structure activity concentration and volume carry independent information; both reveal group differences in prodromal AD.
51 AD Lampl 2003 HMPAO/MMSE MMSE score has no linear correlation to SPECT perfusion findings.
18 referred due to forgetfulness Nakatsuka 2003 SPECT/MRI/3D-SSP Results suggest that 3D-SSP analysis of the SPECT provides the possibility of early diagnosis of initial stage of AD.
49 PD Ochludo 2003 HMPAO In PD with dementia hypoperfusion in inferior frontal region can be found.
15 AD/25 normals Matsuda 2002 SPECT/MRI Discordance between morphologic and functional changes in a longitudinal study of AD. Functional changes may be caused partly by remote effects from the morphologically involved areas with decreased connectivity and partly by a compensatory response by neuronal plasticity.
23 AD/21 Ftd/20 vascular dementia (VaD) Varma 2002 HMPAO/MRI MRI and SPECT imaging provide different information and a combination of these modalities improves diagnostic specificity.
40 AD/17 normals Callen 2002 HMPAO/MRI Findings validate previous post-mortem studies and could be useful in improving diagnostic accuracy, monitoring disease progression and evaluating potential treatment strategies in AD.
10 AD Zheng 2002 HMPAO Cognitive activation scans are more effective than baseline scans in detecting rCBF changes in AD patients after milameline.
14 AD/15 normals Elgh 2002 HMPAO The correlation between rCBF ratio and level of episodic memory performance suggests that abnormalities in rCBF pattern underlie impaired episodic memory functioning in AD.
54 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Huang 2002 SPECT A reduced relative blood flow of the posterior cingulate gyrus could be found at least two years before the patients met the clinical diagnostic criteria of AD.
25 mild AD/33 severe AD/56 normals Musha 2002 SPECT/EEG Analysis of D (alpha) in this sample supports the hypothesis that early stages of AD can be discriminated from normal aging using measures of cortical neuronal impairment.
25 AD receiving Donepezil Nobili 2002 HMPAO Brain perfusion is preserved in AD patients undergoing chronic Donepezil therapy while it is reduced in untreated patients.
3 PD Hervas 2002 HMPAO SPECT could have a prognostic role regarding clinical improvement induced by electroconvulsive therapy in resistant depression in PD.
10 AD receiving Donepezil/ 5 AD receiving Rivastigmine Kaasinen 2002 SPECT Results indicate that the pooled effects of Donepezil and Rivastigmine on brain AChE are greater in the frontal cortex compared to the temporal cortex in AD.
9 AD/10 normals Garrido 2002 SPECT/MRI Hippocampal atrophic changes in AD are associated with reduced functional activity in limbic and associative temporal regions during episodic memory processing, but with increased activity in frontal areas on a compensatory basis.
26 AD/ 6 normals Herholz 2002 SPECT/PET The distinction between healthy volunteers and patients is less sensitive with PET than with SPECT.
7 depressive pseudodementia/7 normals/7 with depression free of cognitive impairment/11 AD Cho 2002 HMPAO The depressive pseudodementia group showed decreased CBF in the temporo-parietal region, similar to that of the DAT group and different from that of the depression group.
10 PD Sestini 2002 SPECT The significant correlation between motor improvement and rCBF increase in the pre-SMA and the anterior cingulate motor area reinforces the hypothesis that STN stimulation in PD patients can potentiate the cortical areas participating in higher-order aspects of motor control.
8 AD Yoshiura 2002 HMPAO/MRI The relative CBF map obtained with MRI is generally in close agreement with the SPECT map, suggesting that MRI can provide clinically useful information regarding CBF abnormalities in patients with AD.
23 mild to moderate dementia/17 normals Yang 2002 ECD SPECT/MRI Study suggests that cognitive dysfunction of subcortical VaD may be related to the reduction of the CBF in the brain areas mentioned, which are probably not associated with the severity of periventricular white matter hyperintensity and dementia.
24 AD/15 normals Fleming 2002 HMPAO The measurement of cerebral perfusion volume and related indices may be of value in identifying patients with early AD and in following their response to treatment.
28 AD/34 DLB Pasquier 2002 ECD SPECT Brain perfusion scintigraphy could be helpful in distinguishing DLB from AD if diagnosis based on clinical criteria alone is difficult.
41 DLB/26 AD Doubleday 2002 SPECT It is possible to differentiate DLB and AD on the basis of qualitative features of performance.
26 AD Ueda 2002 123I-IMP SPECT CDT score may reflect the severity of dementia, and it has a close relationship with the left posterior temporal function. Findings provide the first functional neuro-imaging evidence for the neural substrates involved in CDT performance.
26 vascular dementia (VaD) Cohen 2001 SPECT/MRI Functional “disconnection” between the frontal lobes and subcortical structures does not fully account for the magnitude of global cognitive impairment in VaD. Cortical perfusion as measured by SPECT appears to be associated with cognitive performance, but not specifically executive-attention dysfunction.
72 Ftd Miller 2001 SPECT/MRI Ftd patients with asymmetric loss of function in the nondominant frontal lobe often exhibit a diminished maintenance of previously learned self-concepts despite intact memory and language.
18 PD/11 normals Kikuchi 2001 HMPAO We hypothesize that the impairment of the DLPFC and insular function is correlated with the progression of the disease and is related to DOPA-refractory symptoms.
2 early PD Fernandez 2001 Altropane SPECT/PET Further and more controlled studies are needed to define the role of Altropane in detecting presymptomatic, early and atypical PD cases.
24 AD/12 normals Cappa 2001 HMPAO The combination of neuropsychological tests and HMPAO may be very useful in identifying patients with Ftd from the wider group of patients with AD.
23 DLB/50 AD/20 normals Lobotesis 2001 HMPAO Temporoparietal hypoperfusion on SPECT is common to both AD and DLB. Occipital hypoperfusion on SPECT should raise suspicion that DLB may be the cause of dementia, prompting careful search for other features of the disorder.
41 AD Hogh 2001 HMPAO Pronounced reduction of rCBF in frontal association cortex observed in elderly APOE epsilon4-positive patients might predict clinical progression.
10 coricobasal/16AD Okuda 2001 SPECT rCBF comparison may aid in differentiating CBD from AD.
35 AD receiving Donepezil Nakano 2001 ECD SPECT Treatment with Donepezil for 1 y appears to reduce the decline in rCBF, suggesting preservation of functional brain activity.
140 AD/20 normals Lee 2001 HMPAO HMPAO offers the clinician the possibility of differentiating dementias on the basis of differences in perfusion patterns.
28 AD/13 mild cognitive impairment Migneco 2001 SPECT Results point to a close relationship between apathy and the anterior cingulate region.
41 Ftd Mychack 2001 SPECT/MRI The early presence of socially undesirable behavior in Ftd differentiates right-sided from left-sided degeneration. Results highlight the importance of the right hemisphere in the mediation of social behavior.
70 dementia follow to autopsy/71 normals Jagust 2001 SPECT In the evaluation of dementia, SPECT imaging can provide clinically useful information indicating the presence of AD in addition to the information that is obtained from clinical evaluation.
17 AD/7 FLD/19 NL Pagani 2001 HMPAO Typical temporo-parietal and fronto-parietal HMPAO uptake reductions were found in AD and FLD.
116 AD/23 normals Tsolaki 2001 HMPAO There was a statistical correlation between this hypoperfusion and neuropsychological tests.
68 AD/14 normals Nagao 2001 HMPAO The fractal dimension was correlated with the cognitive impairment, as assessed in neuropsychologic tests. 3D fractal analysis may be a useful method for objectively evaluating the progression of AD.
20 AD Mega 2000 SPECT Patients with AD who manifest psychosis may have disproportionate dysfunction of frontal lobes and related subcortical and parietal structures.
12 Staff 2000 HMPAO/Donepezil In terms of regional cerebral blood flow, we found that the most significant increase in blood flow occurred in the frontal lobes.
32 mild cognitive impairment/45 normals Kogure 2000 ECD SPECT Study showed the characteristic early AD rCBF pattern of selective decrease and longitudinal decline, which may be overlooked by a conventional ROI technique with observer a priori choice and hypothesis. This alteration in rCBF may closely relate to the pathophysiologic process of this disease.
22 AD/11 normals Rodriguez 2000 HMPAO There was a correlation between hippocampal perfusion and the severity of cognitive impairment.
300 Ott B 2000 SPECT Women with AD exhibit greater heterogeneity in rCBF than men.
79 Ott 2000 SPECT Driving impairment was significantly related to regional reduction of right hemisphere cortical perfusion on SPECT, particularly in the temporo-occipital area.
20 AD with/without agression Hirono 2000 HMPAO Results indicated an association between aggression and decreased perfusion in the left anterior temporal cortex.
19mci 23AD 15nl Okamura 2000 SPECT I123 MCI patients presenting with a posterior cingulate hypoperfusion are at higher risk for transition from MCI to AD.
220 Nitrini 2000 SPECT Bilateral parietotemporal hypoperfusion was more frequent in patients with severe AD, in those with early onset of the symptoms, and in men. Duration of symptoms, type of gamma-camera or radiopharmaceutical agent used was not associated with this SPECT pattern.
19AD/10NL Hanyu 2000 SPECT/MRI The functional effect of hippocampal damage occurs in temporoparietal lobes in AD, probably due to neuronal disconnections between hippocampal areas and temporoparietal lobes.
25 Galynker 2000 HMPAO Study indicates that decreased perfusion in the frontal cortex is associated with negative symptoms.
30 Ashford 2000 SPECT/ECD Spatial pattern of high, significant correlations between cortical perfusion and dementia severity shows a regional distribution that corresponds closely to the distribution of AD pathology described in autopsy studies.
40 Charpentier 2000 HMPAO AD and Ftd are differentiated by SPECT.
14DA 12nl Murialdo 2000 HMPAO Data show a relationship between hippocampal perfusion and HPAA function in AD.
163 Claus 2000 EEG/SPECT Lower temporal and parietal rCBF were significantly related to lower parieto-occipital alpha activity.
16FLD 52AD 19subcort dem 28NLS Sjogren 2000 HMPAO Anterior-to-posterior rCBF-SPECT was calculated, which significantly separated the Ftd group from the other dementia groups and controls with a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of at least 78.6%.
19/15 Chang 2000 MRI HIV pMRI can detect rCBF abnormalities that correlate with disease severity in HIV-CMC.
18 Shih 1999 SPECT/ECD 3Ddisplays The initial BSD scores correlated significantly with dementia severity. Consecutive BSDs simplify SPECT image interpretation for measuring loss of brain function over time and could be useful for assessing the efficiency of therapeutic interventions for AD patients.
14 DLB/14 AD/14 normals Ishii 1999 HMPAO Decreased occipital perfusion and relatively well preserved medial temporal perfusion are features that distinguish DLB from AD.
13 AD/20 normals Imran 1999 AIR for standardization of SPECT AIR can transform SPECT images of AD patients with acceptable accuracy without any need for corresponding structural images.
20 AD/15 normals Imran 1999 HMPAO Significantly decreased regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the frontal, parietal, and temporal regions in the patient group, more marked in those patients having severe dementia.
12 PD w/ medically induced hallucinations/21 PD w/o hallucinations Okada 1999 HMPAO Hallucinatory patients showed significantly lower cerebral blood flow in left temporal regions than nonhallucinatory patients. The cerebral blood flow reduction in these regions may be related to the mechanism of medication-induced hallucinations in PD.
20 DLB/20 AD/20 PD Defebvre 1999 HMPAO Correctly classified 53 of 60 patients (88%).
10 PD/10 normals Hanakawa 1999 HMPAO The reduced brain activity in the medial frontal motor areas is a basic abnormality in motor performance in PD. The underactivity in the left cerebellar hemisphere, in contrast to the overactivity in the vermis, could be associated with a loss of lateral gravity shift in Parkinsonian gait.
69 AD Claus 1999 SPECT Left temporal rCBF predicts decline in language function and survival in patients with early probable AD, with a threshold effect of low rCBF and high risk of mortality.
1 Kinuya 1999 HMPAO SPECT imaging revealed reversible hypoperfusion associated with reversible hypothyroid dementia.
34 AD/12 normals Arbizu 1999 HMPAO AD early to late stages SPECT imaging and neuropsychology evaluation can distinguish controls from AD patients with mild and moderate grades of dementia.
20 Benoit 1999 ECD SPECT Apathy NPI score was correlated with right cingulate deficit whereas the highest correlation for the MMSE was with the left temporoparietal area.
28 PD/48 normals Imron 1999 ECD SPECT Analysis showed that significant rCBF changes in PD accompanied disease progression and related to disease pathophysiology in the functional architecture of thalamocortex-basal ganglia circuits and related systems.
25 HIV/25 normals Christensson 1999 HMPAO Significant decline in HMPAO uptake over time and neuropsychological abnormalities progressed.
5 AD Varrone 1999 HMPAO/123I SPECT HMPAO images were better correlated with I-123 images, indicating cortical synaptic density. I-123 SPECT in patients with AD provided more sensitive information than HMPAO, allowing evaluation of brain perfusion and synaptic density.
17 AD/32 normals Kogure 1999 ECD SPECT/MRI MRI-guided ROI analysis of rCBF values in the hippocampus and the SPM analysis of SPECT images are quite useful for early diagnosis and follow-up of AD.
36 AACD McKelvey 1999 HMPAO SPECT abnormalities assessed by visual inspection do not correlate with severity of impairment in AACD individuals, and are not useful in predicting progression to dementia in AACD subjects.
116 AD/20 normals Muller 1999 HMPAO Whereas the MMSE and the delayed recall test differentiated significantly between AD patients and controls, SPECT findings yielded no further differentiation.
33 AD/18 VD Pavics 1999 SPECT/HMPAO Acetazolamide test is promising in rCBF SPET to differentiate VD from AD.
43 Rodriguez 1999 SPECT/HMPAO QEEG Hippocampal SPECT imaging appears to be a promising index to improve characterization of AD in respect to other forms of primary degenerative dementia and may be proposed as a marker for evaluating the effects of pharmacotherapy of AD at the neuronal level.
363 prospective Talbot 1998 HMPAO It is suggested that CBF SPECT should be used selectively and as an adjunct to clinical evaluation and CT.
30AD w/apE422ADw/oapE4


van Dyck 1998 HMPAO Greater parietal rCBF asymmetry is involved in epsilon4- AD than in epsilon4+ AD. Lack of the epsilon4 allele may be associated with other genetic or environmental risk factors, which confer greater neuropathological asymmetry.
50 AD Jagust 1998 SPECT Brain perfusion in the right parietal lobe is a significant predictor of survival in patients with AD even when other predictors are taken into consideration.
31 AD/8 normals Lehtovirta 1998 HMPAO All patients with AD had bilateral temporoparietal hypoperfusion compared with control subjects. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism is involved in the pathogenesis and heterogeneity of AD as the most severe cerebral hypoperfusion was found in the sigma4 allele subgroups.
60 AD/16 normals Blanco 1998 SPECT Parietotemporal location of defective perfusion is of great diagnostic value.
17 AD/20 normals Cardebat 1998 Xe SPECT A significant correlation between memory performance and rCBF recorded in patients with AD during the memory task was found only in the right lateral frontal region.
136 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Johnson 1998 HMPAO HMPAO SPECT is useful as one aspect of the preclinical prediction of AD.
20 AD Lenart-Jankowska 1998 SPECT A special significance has the study of regional cerebral blood flow in the differential diagnosis of AD, frontal lobe dementia and pseudodementia in major depression.
34 AD/12 normals Arbizu 1997 HMPAO Involvement of temporo-parietal cortex was of most use in discriminating between AD patients and controls.
10 AD Sachdev 1997 HMPAO/CT No single perfusion index was a significant predictor of clinical progression of dementia.
55 AD/16 normals Jagust 1997 SPECT/HIPDM PET Results show that while perfusion changes are important in AD, they are not clearly either primary or limiting.
58 AD/17 VD/20 normals Bergman 1997 HMPAO Sensitivity and specificity were too low for SPECT to be useful as a diagnostic test for AD.
261 Xe162 HMP Bonte 1997 Xe/HMPAO SPECT may assist in the early and late diagnoses of AD and in the differential-diagnosis of the dementias when there is a complicated or confusing clinical picture.
122 AD Mattman 1997 SPECT The measurements of left temporal cortical atrophy and regional cerebral blood flow were most indicative of AD; however they lacked the sensitivity and specificity to recommend their use as a diagnostic test for AD.BOGUS METHOD
10 AD/41 normals Scheltens 1997 HMPAO/MRI MTA differed significantly between AD patients and clinically normal. Likes MRI better for medial temporal lobe lesion only.
302 AD Hanyu 1997 123I-IMP SPECT Sensitivity for AD was 86.3% and the specificity was 91.2%
200/119 autopsy Jobst 1997 SPECT HMPAO The diagnostic accuracy afforded by this method of CT and SPECT used alone is better than that of any established clinical criteria and reveals that the combination of MTL atrophy and parietotemporal hypoperfusion is common in AD, much less common in other dementias, and rare in normal controls.
125 Lavenu 1997 SPECT HMPAO Association, although not sensitive, helps to select patients with high probability of AD at an early stage which can be of interest for clinical and research purposes.
139 Masterman 1997 HMPAO A pattern of TP on SPECT scans is seen in most patients with AD, but cannot be regarded as specific to AD. Reduced TP perfusion discriminated between demented and nondemented individuals.
19 AD/21 FLD Pickut 1997 SPECT/HMPAO SPECT may help in discriminating FLD from AD. Bifrontal hypoperfusion was found to be the most powerful predictor of clinical classification
91 AD/16 normals Zimmer 1997 HMPAO Temporo-parietal perfusion deficits were not more frequent than the temporofrontal perfusion deficits. Results suggest that in the clinical routine a high variety of heterogeneous rCBF patterns have to be expected.
36 Golan 1996 HMPAO Follow-up rCBF measurements by SPECT provided additional information on the possible cause of dementia.
52 AD/11 normals Buchpiguel 1996 SPECT/CT CT and SPECT showed equal sensitivity and statistically similar specificity. The specificity of SPECT in diagnosing AD was statistically superior to CT.
12 AD before and after treatment with Tacrine Harkins 1996 SPECT SPECT determined changes in cerebral perfusion may be useful in identification of AD patients who are more likely to respond to centrally active agents such as tacrine.
24 AD/11 normals Nakano 1996 ECD SPECT Results suggest that noninvasive rCBF measurements ECD SPECT are quite useful for the early diagnosis of AD.
24 AD/13 normals van Dyck 1996 HMPAO/ECD SPECT Both tracers perform equally well in correctly classifying patients and control subjects. Both tracers showed high diagnostic accuracy.
8 AD/8 normals Sunderland 1995 HMPAO Data cannot be explained by group differences in cerebral perfusion alone and suggest a differential sensitivity between AD and elderly controls to chronic cholinergic blockade.
31 AD Passero 1995 QEEG/SPECT There is a close relationship between rCBF and certain quantitative EEG parameters in AD patients, mainly the power of the theta and delta bands.
110 Van Gool 1995 HMPAO Routine brain SPECT in mildly demented patients does not contribute substantially to diagnostic accuracy. Clinical guidelines have to be developed for the use of SPECT in patients with (suspected) dementia.
12 AD with anosognosia/12 AD without anosognosia Starkstein 1995 HMPAO Study shows that anosognosia may not be related to deficits in specific cognitive domains, but it may result from dysfunction of the right frontal lobe.
27 autopsy Read 1995 HMPAO Distinct patterns were associated with dementia caused by AD, Ftd, and Jakob-Creutzfeldt Disease.
28 AD/8 FLD Julin 1995 SPECT/EEG We found that FLD patients had more severe frontal blood flow reduction and less severe parietal blood flow reduction compared to AD patients.
29 Wolfe 1995 SPECT I123 Temporal lobe regional cerebral blood flow ratio at initial evaluation correlated with rate of decline in MMSE over the longitudinal follow-up. Temporal regional cerebral blood flow ratio also predicted rate of decline of specific memory measures.
71 autopsy confirmed Jobst 1994 HMPAO The average specificity of clinical criteria alone is about 75%. Medial temporal lobe atrophy assessed by temporal lobe-oriented CT gave 94% sensitivity and 93% specificity, while parietotemporal hypoperfusion on SPECT revealed 96% sensitivity and 89% specificity. The combination of both changes yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 97%.
50 Hellman 1994 HMPAO Demonstrates that interpretation of regional cerebral blood flow/SPECT images is concordant across multiple institutions and readers.
20 AD/12 VD/13 normals Mielke 1994 HMPAO/PET Results suggest that both PET and SPECT can distinguish AD patients from controls, whereas for differentiation between AD and VD SPECT is of little value.
18 PD/20 normals Demonet 1994 Xe-SPECT Memory performances similar to that of controls are viewed as a consequence of an early dysfunction of the articulatory loop system and of compensatory mechanisms in other parts of the frontal lobe emerging in the early stages of the disease.
30 Osimani 1994 HMPAO SPECT is useful as an aid in the differential diagnosis of dementia.
25 AD/25 normals Waldemar 1994 HMPAO An analysis of individual rCBF data may add important information in the investigation of diseases with heterogeneous effects on the brain.
8 AD/8 FLD/8 normals Starkstein 1994 HMPAO present study shows the specificity of changes in regional cerebral blood flow in the diagnosis of different types of dementia, and supports the importance of orbitofrontal, anterior temporal, and basal ganglia dysfunction in the production of the psychiatric syndrome of frontal lobe dementia.
13 AD/21 normals Elmstahl 1994 HMPAO The sensitivity of the assessment to detect abnormalities compared to SPECT was 78% if borderline and abnormal results were expressed as true-positive cases.
29 AD/78 normals Johnson 1993 HMPAO SPECT accurately distinguishes AD patients from elderly controls.
30AD/30 Mdepr/30 normals Sackeim 1993 Xe-SPECT Previous findings of an abnormal regional network in major depression were unaltered by the inclusion of AD patients in the analysis. AD was associated with a distinct parietotemporal deficit and the degree of this abnormality strongly covaried with cognitive impairment.
59Dementia14 NL Dierckx 1993 SPECT/HMPAO In the PDD group, sensitivity was then 25% for the mildly, 43.8% for the moderately and 46.7% for the severely affected PDD subgroup.
2 Namikawa 1993 123I-IMP SPECT/MRI/CT SPECT is useful in diagnosing and elucidating the pathophysiology of dementia.
219 Hanyu 1993 SPECT Results suggest that SPECT imaging provides an accurate and sensitive diagnostic test for AD.
20 elderly with major depressive disorder/20 AD/30 normals Curran 1993 SPECT Data suggests SPECT may find a limited role in the differential diagnosis of depression and dementia.
10 AD/9 normals Riddle 1993 Xe-SPECT Successful performance was correlated with activation of dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortex on the left side. The results confirm the central role of frontal mechanisms in a recognition memory task.
16 Engel 1993 SPECT Xe/HMPAO SPECT promises to provide diagnostic information and data relevant to interpretation of neuropsychological deficits.
20 AD Kwa 1993 HMPAO/EEG Study shows that slowing of the EEG parallels a decrease in blood flow in the temporoparietal regions in AD-patients.
16AD Yoshimura 1993 SPECT I123 Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion.
14AD 14NLS AUTOPSY Wyper 1993 HMPAO SPECT imaging with HMPAO and CT scanning both have a higher incidence of abnormality in AD patients than in controls and that the difference between patients and controls is greater with SPECT than with CT.
8 Cummings 1992 SPECT SPECT demonstrated frontal and temporal hypoperfusion with relative sparing of parietal and occipital blood flow.
14 Wszolek 1992 SPECT/EEG Correlations between percentage power and amplitude ratio in the EEG frequency bands and regional SPECT counts were found, but most were not statistically significant.
35/35 O’Brien 1992 HMPAO Perfusion deficits were detected in 34 of 35 patients but in only 4 of 35 controls.
20 PD/21 AD/24 normals Jagust 1992 123I-IMP-SPECT Different neural mechanisms are responsible for the different aspects of cognitive decline seen in PD patients, with overall cognitive function closely related to age and temporal perfusion, while frontal lobe abilities are more linked to frontal perfusion and the presence of depression.
11 HIV+/26 ARC/17 AIDS/ 7 drug-addicted controls Garavelli 1992 HMPAO Control group is too small to exclude cerebral blood flow impairment caused by drug damage but nevertheless we think that SPECT has an important role in assessing CBF changes in earlier stages of AIDS disease. These changes are probably forerunners of definitive cerebral damage and may be important markers of the advancement of disease.
31 AD/9 normals Domper 1991 HMPAO Dec TL and PL in AD
27 PD/7 AD/9 normals Kawabata 1991 123I-IMP SPECT In patients with PD, the mechanism of CBF reduction of the frontal cortical region differs from that in the temporoparietal cortical region and supports the concept that PD and AD may overlap in some patients.
10/10 Carroll 1991 SPECT Cognitive decline in liver disease.
1 Tokuda 1991 Xe-SPECT/MRI/CT The present case suggests that head trauma might be one of the provoking or promoting factors of AD.
160 Launes 1991 HMPAO HMPAO seems to be useful in the diagnosis of suspected dementia.
7 AD/10 normals Hurwitz 1991 HMPAO SPECT with HMPAO is a non-invasive investigation and complements existing tests in the routine evaluation of patients presenting with dementia.
34/11 Battistin 1990 HMPAO A positive correlation was found between the magnitude of the parietal deficits and the severity of dementia
20 PD/8 normals Hayashi 1989 123I-IMP SPECT Data shows that the severity of dementia in PD may be connected with other factors except for rCBF.
Total Patients Total Authors Total Studies
13,261 210 210


If you want to speak to someone immediately, you can call a qualified Patient Care Coordinator with Amen Clinics. We can start to answer your questions and help you book a Full Evaluation with Amen Clinics. Call Today! 888-208-0037

Book an evaluation

Have a Question?