Since the 1980s, there have been thousands of scientific papers on brain SPECT imaging for evaluating many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The Amen Clinics' research library contains our own scientific research along with abstracts of thousands of studies from the U.S. and around the world.



# Patients Author Date of Study Type Age Notes
21 Ota 2006 PET Adult Results indicate that the previously demonstrated age-related decline in striatal dopamine synthesis extends to several extrastriatal regions in normal human brain.
48 Ito 2006 HMPAO/IMP-SPECT/ECD-SPECT/PET/MRI Adult Differences in regional distribution of tracers were considered to be caused mainly by differences in the mechanism of retention of tracers in the brain. Regional distribution of CBF was independent of regional distribution of gray matter fractions, and consequently the blood flow per gray matter volume differed for each brain region.
31 Takahashi 2006 HMPAO Adult Analysis revealed that the greatest reduction in rCBF occurred within the bilateral anterior cingulate gyri in normal middle-aged and older subjects.
19 Wang 2005 fMRI Both Results demonstrate that significant activation in aged adults can be observed in all the olfactory brain structures that are activated in young adults, but with lower activation volume and intensity.
10 Bai 2005 123I-IMP SPECT Adult The influence of photon scattering and attenuation was dependent on regions. Since the count in the cerebellar ROI is greatly affected by photon scattering and attenuation, nonuniform attenuation correction combined with scatter correction deserves consideration when using the cerebellar ROI as the reference.
44 Inoue 2005 ECD-SPECT/MRI Adult Study demonstrated that age effects on CBF in healthy subjects could reflect morphological differences with age in grey matter.
85 Barnden 2005 HMPAO Adult Optimized processing has revealed spatial patterns for age related preservation and losses in SPECT that indicate their origin is primarily structural.
52 Fukushima 2005 ECD-SPECT Children This database enabled us to easily find 3-dimensional brain perfusion abnormality in individual patient by SPECT, and may help elucidate the pathophysiology of many brain disorders.
61 Miyahira 2004 MRI Adult Findings suggested that the most marked age-related brain volume reductions were seen in the prefrontal cortex and the entorhinal cortex.
102 Lye 2004 MRI Adult Findings suggest that hippocampal volumes are selectively correlated with memory functioning in both normal and successful aging.
45 Rusinek 2003 MRI Adult Among healthy elderly individuals, increased medial temporal lobe atrophy rate appears to be predictive of future memory decline.
200 Steen 2003 MRI Children Age-related changes follow a different schedule in each tissue, and age is a stronger determinant of T1 in gray matter than in white matter.
50 Pagani 2002 HMPAO Adult The ability of standardization software and PCA to identify functionally connected brain regions might contribute to a better understanding of the relationships between rCBF at rest, anatomically defined brain structures, aging and gender.
89 Van Laere 2001 ECD-SPECT Adult Women had significantly higher uptake in the right parietal cortex, while men showed higher uptake in the cerebellum and the left anterior temporal and orbitofrontal cortex.
33 Larsson 2001 HMPAO Adult The reduction in rCBF in the hippocampus rose from 0.14% between the ages of 40 and 75 years to 0.33% between the ages of 75 and 88 years.
66 Tang 2001 MRI Adult Findings showed that there was age-related atrophy of cerebrum and cerebellum and age-related disproportional enlargement of lateral ventricles in normal older men and women.
187 Slosman 2001 Xe-SPECT Adult The large-scale reference database of gCBF measurements constituted from a healthy, well-controlled population enabled age and sex stratification, which showed significant differences between the sexes and a significant decline as a function of age.
86 Knutson 2001 MRI Adult Results suggest that individual differences in stress reactivity contribute to reductions in brain volume observed during adulthood.
48 Tanaka 2000 ECD-SPECT Adult Although regional ECD brain perfusion patterns vary significantly, including variability caused by the age-related effect, intersubject variability is small.
6 Jonsson 2000 HMPAO Adult For the normalized (relative) flow data, the reproducibility was +/- 1.3% and the repeatability +/- 2.2% (i.e. methodological errors dominate). For the non-normalized flow data, the corresponding values were +/- 14.8% and +/- 5.9%.
53 Nakano 2000 ECD-SPECT Adult Decreases in rCBF may suggest cognitive changes that occur during normal aging.
44 Wirestam 2000 HMPAO/MRI Adult Relative rCBF maps from dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI and HMPAO showed good agreement, and the MRI-based rCBF ratio correlated with the corresponding SPECT-based ratio
28 Lobaugh 2000 HMPAO Adult Technique can easily be implemented in clinical and research settings to detect camera-specific, abnormal deviations in rCBF ROI ratios and asymmetry magnitudes in diseases associated with aging, such as stroke and dementia.
37 Schultz 1999 [(15)O]H2O-PET Adult Findings reflect differences in the distribution of rCBF evident in early to mid-adulthood that may be associated with subsequent changes in memory and executive functioning in later life.
26 Ernst 1999 SPECT/pMRI Adult RCBF from pMRI correlates significantly with rCBF from SPECT.
37 Kuji 1999 ECD-SPECT Both ECD uptake in children and infants is different from cerebral blood flow glucose metabolism as previously reported, especially in the cerebellum.
21 Tokumaru 1999 123I-IMP SPECT Children The time course of the changes in 123I-IMP uptake in the developing brain as detected by SPECT is similar to that of myelination and most likely reflects an overall topologic maturational pattern of the brain.
17 Asenbaum 1998 HMPAO/ECD-SPECT Adult Results indicate that direct comparisons of studies performed with HMPAO and ECD are not possible and the use of either tracer can be favorable in different clinical questions.
18 Goto 1998 HMPAO Adult Statistically significant differences between young and aged groups were observed in the relative tracer distribution patterns. In the aged group, relative decreases were found in the cortical areas of the frontal and temporal lobes, limbic areas and basal ganglia regions.
27 Krausz 1998 HMPAO Adult Findings suggest that advancing age has a differential effect on cerebral perfusion reflected in brain HMPAO uptake.
26 Baeken 1998 123I-5-I-R91150 SPECT Adult Findings confirm the suitability of 123I-5-I-R91150 for SPET imaging of 5-HT2A receptors, and highlight the necessity for age-matched controls in clinical studies.
16 Schiepers 1997 ECD-SPECT Children The age dependence of perfusion necessitates a database comparison before concluding that the observed perfusion pattern is normal.
23 Barthel 1997 ECD-SPECT Children There are systematic differences between 4 to 15-year-old children and adults with regard to normal lCBF. Diagnostic use of perfusion agents has to consider age-adjusted normal flow maps; normal ranges should be determined separately for the age groups 4-10 and 11-15 years.
9 Deutsch 1997 HMPAO Adult Although individual patterns of rCBF replicate well, the larger contribution of frontal regions to normal between-subjects variance makes evaluating the frontal effects of disease or activation more difficult.
20 Ichise 1997 ECD-SPECT Adult Optimal imaging time may be between 30-120 min. However, images obtained up to 4 hr still maintain the initial gray-matter activity pattern.
61 Kawahata 1997 ECD-SPECT Adult The present study shows that normal aging is associated with mCBF reduction.
20 Koyama 1997 HMPAO/ECD-SPECT While both HMPAO and ECD have been used to investigate rCBF, their perfusion patterns differ from rCBF-PET images. This presumably reflects differences in the mechanism of accumulation of each agent in the brain.
44 Mozley 1997 HMPAO Adult Aging significantly affects the relative uptake of HMPAO in healthy humans.
8 Yamada 1997 fMRI Children fMRI can detect dynamic metabolic changes during the brain maturation, and provides a new clue in the detection of abnormal brain development or CNS plasticity.
90 Patterson 1997 HMPAO/ECD-SPECT Adult We present a method of image analysis to semiquantitatively measure rCBF in SPECT images and the changes seen due to differences between the two radiotracers.
6 Oku 1997 HMPAO/ECD-SPECT Adult Results suggest that HMPAO and ECD require specific and separate criteria for diagnosing temporal lobe pathologies, such as dementia and temporal lobe epilepsy.
52 Yang 1996 HMPAO Both A significant negative correlation was found between global CBF and advancing age, particularly in males.
68 Catafau 1996 HMPAO Adult A symmetrical rCBF distribution can be assumed between homologous regions, independent of age.
10 Kawashima 1996 ECD-SPECT Adult Results indicate that the normal distribution pattern of ECD in the human brain may be not simply reflecting the regional cerebral blood flow.
26 Kobayashi 1996 123I-IMP SPECT Both In older cases, rCBF in the cerebral cortex was higher than in the thalamus. In childhood, rCBF was very inconsistent and showed a great inter-individual variance.
69 Murphy 1996 PET/MRI Adult Found significant sex differences in aging of brain areas that are essential to higher cognitive functioning.
150 Moeller 1996 FDG-PET Adult Healthy aging is associated with reproducible topographic covariation profiles associated with specific neural systems.
28 van Dyck 1995 123I-CIT SPECT Adult In vivo methodologies may permit the age-related degeneration of dopamine nerve terminals to be studied in relation to the cognitive and motor deficits that occur in normal aging.
120 Loessner 1995 FDG-PET Adult Adequate knowledge of normal variations and changes related to normal aging is necessary for optimal assessment of pathologic states.
18 Koyama 1995 HMPAO Adult Anatomical standardization of SPECT images may be useful as a reference to diagnose and evaluate various brain disorders.
71 De Santi 1995 FDG-PET Adult Results suggest that age-related metabolic changes exist in both frontal and temporal lobes and that the frontal lobe change is greater.
49 Doraiswamy 1994 MRI Adult Findings are consistent with prior reports of caudate nuclei degeneration with increasing age.
161 Pfefferbaum 1994 MRI Both Patterns of growth and change seen in vivo with MRI are largely consistent with neuropathological studies, as well as animal models of development, and may reflect neuronal progressive and regressive processes, including cell growth, myelination, cell death, and atrophy.
53 Houston 1994 HMPAO Adult Using an optimal decision level, 10/10 patients with AD and 11/12 patients with infarcts were correctly identified, with only one false-positive resulting. We utilized a database of images obtained from normal controls to create a normal atlas.
9 Isaka 1994 Xe-SPECT/HMPAO/123I-IMP SPECT Adult Good correlations were found between IMP and the HMPAO values in the cortical gray matter, the white matter and the cerebellum. In the striatum and the thalamus, the correlations between IMP and HMPAO values were inferior to those of the other three regions.
22 Jibiki 1993 123I-IMP SPECT Adult These results may be useful as indexes for detecting organic and functional brain abnormalities in various neuropsychiatric diseases.
20 Markus 1993 HMPAO Adult Analysis of regional uptake revealed that this trend towards reduced uptake in the elderly was a global phenomenon affecting all brain regions.
33 normal 22 CVD Matsuda 1993 HMPAO Adult Results suggest that this non-invasive method (without any blood sampling) permits the routine measurement of rCBF from HMPAO of blood flow.
42 Chiron 1992 Xe-SPECT Children Cognitive development of the child seems to be related to changes in blood flow of the corresponding brain regions.
50 Syed 1992 HMPAO Adult Results suggest that the choice of reference region is one of the causes resulting in discrepancies in the results from various centers. The need to use a standard reference region is indicated.
189 Rodriguez 1991 Xe-SPECT Adult Asymmetries are useful from a statistical point of view in detecting rCBF abnormalities in the resting condition: they are more stable than absolute values in normal subjects and no matching according to age or sex is required when statistical comparisons are performed.
53 Waldemar 1991 HMPAO Adult Results are useful in distinguishing the effects of age and simple atrophy from disease effects, when the HMPAO method is used.
30 Martin 1991 PET Adult The affected areas were all limbic, or association, cortices. Therefore, these decreases may constitute the cerebral substrate of the cognitive changes that occur during normal aging.
97 Hagstadius 1989 SPECT Adult The age-related decrease of rCBF is interpreted as reflecting aging of the brain per se, although the influence of asymptomatic brain disease can not be ruled out. The flow asymmetries are interpreted as being related to functional lateralization of some aspects of attentional activation.
38 male 38 female Rodriguez 1988 Xe-SPECT Adult The sex differences in regional flow pattern might be due to differences in the functional organization of the cortex and/or to differences in the mental processes of the “resting” state.
55 Gur 1987 Xe-SPECT Adult Findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.
30 Ogawa 1987 Xe-SPECT Both Through the entire age range, a best fit for the Fw values was found with: y = 18.3 + 37.5/x. (r = 0.798), which was also statistically significant.
140 Mathew 1986 Xe-SPECT Adult Age-related CBF reduction was found to be most marked in the frontal region.
38 Iwata 1986 Xe-SPECT Adult In regards to cerebrovascular resistance (CVR), significant correlation to aging was observed, and there was an increase of CVR after the forties compared with the twenties. This appeared to be due to the positive correlation of blood pressure to aging.
39 Shirahata 1985 Xe-SPECT Adult Tomography is atraumatic and affords rCBF images free of the superposition artifacts that practically invalidate the nontomographic approaches in the studies of cerebrovascular disease.
103 Globus 1985 Xe-SPECT Adult Findings suggest that the decline of rCBF is not limited to healthy elderly subjects, but is a progressive phenomenon that begins at an earlier age.
105 Matsuda 1984 Xe-SPECT Adult Measured rCBF values for patients must be compared to age-matched normal values for mean hemispheric and each region examined.
20 Vereshchagin 1983 Xe-SPECT Adult The method demonstrated good reproducibility which warrants its wide clinical application for RCB determination for studying the pathogenetic mechanisms of cerebral blood flow changes.
15 Cossu 1982 Xe-SPECT Children The mean hemispheric values are in good agreement with those reported in literature and obtained with a limited number of probes.
90 Matsuda 1982 Xe-SPECT Adult It is concluded that measured rCBF of a patient have to be compared with age-matched normal values of mean brain and each region.
44 Melamed 1980 Xe-SPECT Adult Findings suggest that decline of rCBF is not limited to normal elderly subjects but that it is a progressive phenomenon which begins at an earlier age.
Total SPECT Total PET Total MRI/fMRI
59 8 15
Total patients Total Authors Total Studies
4111 72 76


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