Since the 1980s, there have been thousands of scientific papers on brain SPECT imaging for evaluating many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The Amen Clinics' research library contains our own scientific research along with abstracts of thousands of studies from the U.S. and around the world.



# Patients First Author Study Date Type Age range Significant findings
7 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)/ 9 normals Werhahn 2006 FDG-PET/ MRI Adult D2/ D3-receptor binding is reduced at the pole and in lateral aspects of the epileptogenic temporal lobe in patients with mesial TLE and hippocampal sclerosis.
11 mesial temporal lope epilepsy (mTLE) Nelissen 2006 SPECT/ FDG-SPECT Adult Surround inhibition in the frontal lobe is a dynamic defense mechanism against seizure propagation, and may be responsible for functional deficits observed in mTLE.
18 frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) Fukuda 2006 ECD-SPECT/ 3D-SSP Adult SPECT analyzed by 3D-SSP is useful as a mode of pre-surgical evaluation in FLE patients without a history of encephalitis or surgical treatment.
1 Rasmussen’s encephalitis Burneo 2006 SPECT/ MRI Adult SPECT could be a useful tool in the localization of the epileptogenic focus in patients with Rasmussen’s encephalitis and other localization-related epilepsies.
30 generalized epilepsy treated with lamotrigine Joo 2006 ECD-SPECT Adult Lamotrigine medication was found to reduce perfusion in cortico-thalamo-limbic areas, the orbitofrontal cortex, and brainstem.
20 complex partial seizures (CPS) Santiago – Rodriguez 2006 SPECT/ EEG Adult Hypoperfusion zones in interictal SPECT of patients with CPS are in agreement with the origin of dipoles in 85% of the cases, but in specifics zones of temporal lobe the agreement falls to 60%.
36 pharmacoresistant partial epilepsy Huberfeld 2006 ECD-SPECT/ MRI Adult The symmetrical nature of the mirror image does not disturb SPECT interpretation.
1 frontal lobe epilepsy with postictal mania Nishida 2005 SPECT/ EEG/ MEG Adult Findings
of EEG, MEG, and SPECT during the postictal manic episodes suggest that functional changes in bilateral frontal lobes, especially the right frontal lobe, right temporal lobe, and right paralimbic area, are crucial in the development of postictal mania, and that these functional changes are dynamic.
1 with reflex seizures Abreu 2005 SPECT/ EEG Adult A relevant role played by the right hemisphere is postulated in the full-blown expression of reflex epileptogenesis, as supported by EEG and SPECT findings.
1 Fuentes 2005 SPECT/ EEG/ CT Adult The association of FTD and epilepsy, in non-family form, suggests a different neurodegenerative cortical syndrome.
26 occipital lobe epilepsy Kun 2005 SPECT/ MRI/ FDG-PET Both A greater concordance between pre-surgical evaluation modalities indicates a better surgical outcome.
2 Shon 2005 Subtraction SPECT Adult Data suggest the clinical relevance of subtraction SPECT imaging in assessing the post-procedural outcome as well as the characteristics of SPECT perfusion patterns in other epilepsy syndromes.
1 nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy Vetrungo 2005 SPECT Adult SPECT during an episode of paroxysmal arousals demonstrated increased blood flow in the right anterior cingulate gyrus and cerebellar cortex with hypoperfusion in the right temporal and frontal associative cortices.
38 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE)/ 19 normals Tae 2005 SPECT Adult Cerebral perfusion patterns of mTLE suggest interictal hypofunction and ictal activation of the cortico-thalamo-hippocampal-insular network and ictal hypoperfusion of the anterior frontal cortex.
10 mesio-temporal lobe epilepsy/ 27 normals Grova 2005 SPECT/ correspondence analysis (CA)/ hierarchical clustering (HC) Adult CA followed by HC is a promising approach to explore brain perfusion patterns from SPECT VOI measurements.
47 McNally 2005 HMPAO Adult Results emphasize the need to obtain SPECT injections during seizures to achieve unambiguous localization.
21 psychosis of epilepsy (POE)/ 23 normals Guarnieri 2005 HMPAO Adult We observed a trend for rCBF increase of right posterior cingulate in POE. This increase would be in accordance with recent findings of cingulate abnormalities in schizophrenia, suggesting that abnormal function in this region might be associated with the psychotic phenomena.
12 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Weder 2005 SPECT Adult Local pattern within the temporal lobe describes critical relay
nodes which are the counterpart of oro-alimentary
330 Shukla 2005 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Unidirectional whole body turning is a new lateralizing sign in temporal lobe complex partial seizures with good predictive value for epileptogenic focus contralateral to the direction of turning.
18 had status epilepticus episode/ 21 did not have status epilepticus episode Oner 2005 HMPAO Children These children might be candidates for refractory convulsive disease, and interictal SPECT can be a reliable method for the detection of brain lesions in these patients.
1 with hydranencephaly and refractory seizures Gururaj 2005 SPECT Children The cause of the seizures remained unclear in spite of the investigations.
19 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy/ 18 neocortical epilepsy with focal cortical dysplasia Morimoto 2005 123I-IMZ SPECT/ 123I-IMP SPECT Adult Central-type benzodiazepine receptor neuroimaging is useful for detection of epileptogenic foci, but their alterations differ between epilepsy subtypes and time-courses.
2 Bussiere 2005 SPECT/ MRI/ CT Adult Taken together with the clinical history, results suggest focal inhibitory seizure as the underlying etiology.
125 with nonrefractory cryptogenic partial epilepsy Weitemeyer 2005 FDG-PET/ MRI Adult Careful analysis of all routinely available clinical and neurophysiologic data has a much better predictive power to identify patients with medically refractory epilepsy early in the course of the disease.
1 with complex partial seizures Palmini 2005 FDG-PET Adult FDG-PET independently confirmed that gelastic seizures in patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) do originate in the diencephalic lesion. An HH may coexist with another epileptogenic lesion, in a context of dual pathology.
240 temporal lobe epilepsy Salanova 2004 SPECT Adult Dual pathology was almost exclusively seen in patients whose lesions were congenital, or occurred early in life, suggesting that the hippocampus is more vulnerable and more readily develops HS in early childhood.
24 temporal and frontal lobe epilepsy Bruggemann 2004 SPECT/ MRI/ Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) Children SPM is effective in localizing the potential epileptogenic zone but does not provide additional benefit beyond SPECT in pre-surgical assessment of children with intractable epilepsy.
51 Teixeira 2004 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG Adult Findings suggest that compensatory skull thickening in patients with precocious destructive brain insults are more frequent among patients with unilateral and large lesions.
13 Hashizume 2004 SPECT Adult Although the data are preliminary and observation over a longer period is required to determine whether spontaneous seizures will occur in this model, it is expected that this new model will be useful for studying epilepsy associated with focal cortical dysplasia.
40 parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) Kim 2004 SPECT/ FDG-PET-EEG Adult In PLE seizures can manifest themselves in a wider variety of ways than previously thought.
40 refractory epilepsy Setoain 2004 HMPAO Adult Combination of SPECT, intracarotid amobarbital procedure, and neuropsychological testing predicted risk for all patients who had postoperative memory decline, indicating that risk prediction should be based on multiple factors.
17 refractory temporal lobe epilepsy Sylaja 2004 SPECT/ MRI Adult A subgroup of patients destined to have an excellent post-ATL outcome can be selected from MRI-negative TLE patients by using history EEG data.
15 partial epilepsy caused by focal cortical dysplasia Gupta 2004 SPECT Children SPECT is a useful adjunctive test in pre-surgical evaluation of children with refractory partial epilepsy due to focal cortical dysplasia, especially when MRI is normal.
13 Knowlton 2004 SPECT Adult SPM can be used to provide objective, accurate analysis of ictal SPECT scans in patients with extratemporal lobe epilepsy.
4 Nehlig 2004 ECD-SPECT/ MRI Children Neuronal activity underlying the occurrence of spike-and-wave discharges does not seem to require an increase in metabolic demand and blood flow rates.
97 temporal lobe epilepsy Mizobuchi 2004 SPECT/ MRI Adult Results suggest a correlation between hyperperfusion of putamen and contralateral dystonic posturing.
1 Shuke 2004 123I-IMZ SPECT/ 123I-123I-IMZ-SPECT/ ECD SPECT Adult Cerebral benzodiazepine receptor imaging with IMZ can be helpful for correct localization of epileptogenic foci.
12 Mohamed 2004 IDEX-SPECT/ FDG-PET/ MRI Adult The IDEX-SPECT scan is a viable alternative to FDG-PET imaging in seizure onset localization in temporal lobe epilepsy.
51 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Wichert-Ana 2004 SPECT Adult Analysis of ictal SPECT in TLE requires the knowledge of typical and atypical perfusion patterns, the distribution of interictal spikes on temporal lobes and the ictal chronology of seizures.
32 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) Joo 2004 SPECT Adult Caudate nucleus, putamen, and thalamus were significantly related to the ictal dystonic posturing during mTLE seizures.
38 Otsuki 2004 SPECT/ MRI/ FDG-PET/ MEG Adult Ictal SPECT was considered the most sensitive at detecting focal changes relating to seizures compared to other neuroimaging modalities.
1 Heo 2004 Subtraction SPECT Children The anatomical substrate involved in the generation of ictal facial metamorphopsia is located in the visual association areas at the right temporo-occipital junction.
52 with partial and secondarily generalized seizures Thadani 2004 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Ictal SPECT is superior to interictal SPECT in localizing and lateralizing seizure foci.
26/ 25 normals Xie 2004 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI/ X-CT Adult The level of serum endothelin is of value to the differential diagnosis for interictal epilepsy cases, and can contribute to the qualitative diagnosis of idiopathic epilepsy.
54 occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) Shimono 2003 SPECT/ MRI Children SPECT study showed wide hyperperfusion areas in the temporo-parieto-occipital lobe in most of patients with abnormal MRI findings.
33 nonlesional neocortical epilepsy Lee 2003 SPECT/ EEG/ FDG-PET Adult FDG-PET and SPECT had localizing value in no more than half of patients.
3 Iizuka 2003 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG Adult Slowly and progressively spreading stroke-like lesions may reflect ongoing neuronal metabolic derangement associated with concomitant vasogenic edema provoked by prolonged epileptic seizure activities.
1 occipital lobe epilepsy Hattori 2003 HMPAO/ ECD-SPECT Children Diffusion-weighted imaging is a useful tool to predict the prognosis of frequent seizures.
23 Kapucu 2003 HMPAO/ EEG/ MRI Children The relatively consistent pattern of frontal regional cerebral blood flow alterations suggests that altered frontal lobe functions can be implicated in patients with childhood absence epilepsy.
43 intractable epilepsy Sojkova 2003 ECD-SPECT/ MRI/ EEG Adult There appears to be a correlation between lateralizing uptake in subcortical structures on ictal SPECT and post-surgical outcome in intractable epilepsy patients.
143 Mazzini 2003 SPECT/ MRI Adult The degrees of hydrocephalus and of hypoperfusion in the temporal lobes are significant risk factors for late posttraumatic epilepsy.
24 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Gudin 2003 HMPAO/ ECD-SPECT/ FDG-PET Children TLE is associated to a significant decrease in thalamic, temporal and cerebellar perfusion in the basal state compared to the activated one.
320 Shi 2003 ECD-SPECT/ Hyperbaric Oxygen (HBO) Adult HBO therapy has specific curative effects on patients with postbrain injury neural status, and ECD-SPECT could play an important role in diagnosing postbrain injury neural status and monitoring the therapeutic effects of HBO.
12 with medically intractable epilepsy Boussion 2003 SPECT/ FDG-PET Adult The technique was successfully tested on simulated images with well-defined abnormalities, in terms of size and intensity.
1 Inutsuka 2003 HMPAO/ EEG Children Ictal fear associated with various hallucinations and oral automatisms resulted from rapid spread of epileptic discharges from frontal lobes to the right anterior temporal region.
5 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Leutmezer 2003 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Postictal psychoses in patients with TLE are associated with hyperactivation of temporal and frontal lobe structures.
20 Kaminska 2003 SPECT/ MRI Children SPECT plays an important role as a non-invasive pre-surgical method of investigation by optimizing the placement of intracranial electrodes, thus improving the post-surgery outcome of pediatric partial epilepsy.
50 temporal lobe epilepsy Shin 2002 SPECT Adult Not only the radiotracer injection time but also semiologic progression after the injection was important to determine hyperperfusion pattern of ictal SPECT.
41 non-lesional neocortical epilepsy Hong 2002 HMPAO/ FDG-PET/ EEG Adult Interictal FDG-PET and ictal SPECT were found to be useful as complementary and, sometimes, independent modalities.
33 drug-resistant epilepsy Calcagni 2002 ECD-SPECT/ EEG Adult ECD-SPECT makes it possible to localize the focus, to avoid the limitations due to the unpredictability of seizures, to avoid pitfalls due to late injection, to avoid intracranial EEG recording and to minimize costs.
71 Lee 2002 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Findings are consistent with a role for the thalamus and upper brainstem in consciousness mechanisms. Variance in the results may be due to differences in timing of radioisotope injection, sensitivity of the SPECT technique, and the ability to clinically assess the conscious state.
35 Hartley 2002 SPECT/ MRI Children SPECT findings had little to contribute over the abnormalities detected on MRI.
84 neocortical epilepsy Siegel 2002 SPECT/ MRI Adult Interictal SPECT is of potentially limited value in localizing neocortical seizure foci.
6 Perault 2002 ECD-SPECT Children When comparing intra-patient SPECT images, one should be aware of the potential impact of the gray-level normalization method on clinical interpretation.
17 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)/ 23 neocortical epilepsy (NE) Lee 2002 ECD SPECT/ HMPAO Adult Sensitivity of ECD is similar to that of HMPAO in TLE; however, ictal hyperperfusion was higher with the HMPAO. In patients with NE, HMPAO also was superior to ECD in sensitivity and degree of hyperperfusion.
1 temporal lobe epilepsy Janszky 2002 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Although SPECT suggested a left temporal seizure focus, the EEG and the postoperative seizure-freedom confirmed the right-sidelocation of the epileptogenic region. A rapid right-left seizure spread explains the mechanism of falsely lateralizing SPECT.
14 Thomas 2002 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG Adult Data indicate that it is possible to obtain localization in patients with normal MRI using a combination of ictal EEG patterns and an ictal SPECT study.
12 Chang 2002 SPECT Adult Results provide evidence supporting SPM difference analysis in assessing regions of significant CBF change from baseline in concordance with our current clinically used technique of SPECT ictal/ interictal difference imaging in epilepsy patients.
23 Jing 2002 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Correlation dimension is useful for differentiating dynamic properties of neuronal networks in the interictal state, and can provide informative data for localizing epileptogenic foci in epileptic patients.
17 partial epilepsy Shiga 2001 123I-IMP-SPECT/ ECD SPECT/ MRI Adult The coregistration of interictal perfusion SPECT and MRI is useful not only to provide precise functional and anatomic mapping but also to improve the accuracy of calculations of the semiquantitative analysis of regional cerebral blood flow parameters during the interictal state of epilepsy.
11 frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) Takano 2001 SPECT Adult Hypoperfusion in the thalamus may have a complementary role to lateralize the epileptic foci in patients with FLE.
61 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Avery 2001 HMPAO Adult Significant correlation of age at onset and duration of epilepsy with AIs in RTLE but not LTLE suggests physiologic processes may be determined in part by laterality of TLE.
53 after anterior mesial temporal lobectomy Wichert-Ana 2001 SPECT/ EEG Adult Study suggested that not only typical, but also some atypical perfusion patterns may contribute to the lateralization of epileptogenic zone.
117 Hwang 2001 SPECT/ MRI/ PET Adult PET or ictal SPECT are complementary, most helpful in cases of negative MRI findings.
10 with absence seizures Iannetti 2001 SPECT Children Ictal SPECT findings may contribute to the physiopathologic classification of the different types of epilepsies.
2 Hollo 2001 SPECT Children Ictal extratemporal blood-flow changes are highly dynamic, particularly in very young children.
21 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE)/ 9 extratemporal epilepsy (ETE) Weil 2001 ECD-SPECT Adult Although ictal ECD-SPECT has a lower sensitivity in ETE than in TLE, it can be used to clearly distinguish between TLE and ETE.
1 Khadilkar 2001 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult SPECT showed that the perfusion increased in right cingulate gyrus but not in the hamartoma, suggesting the involvement of the cingulate gyrus in the seizure origin or pathway.
17 occipital lobe epilepsy (OLE) Kim 2001 HMPAO/ FDG-PET Adult In OLE, SPECT was helpful in lateralization, but less helpful in localization.
46 refractory temporal lobe epilepsy Crespel 2001 ECD SPECT/ EEG Adult Unilateral mesial temporal hyperperfusion associated with hypoperfusion of contralateral mesial structures evidenced by ictal SPECTs appear to be preoperative criteria for a successful outcome after surgery.
61 intractable epilepsy Kalra 2001 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG/ CT Children Interictal and ictal SPECT identified more focal changes in children with intractable epilepsy than interictal EEG, CT, and probably MRI.
6 Yeni 2000 SPECT/ EEG Children Results were supportive of subcortical origin for the absence seizures and they were also promising for the diagnostic value of ictal SPECT in epileptic cases with undetermined origin as to whether they were localization-related or generalized.
6 Van Paesschen 2000 HMPAO/ MRI Adult Localizing information of self-injection was better in three patients, and obviated the need for depth-EEG studies in one patient.
19 medial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Kim 2000 IAP-SPECT Adult IAP-SPECT may be useful in interpreting IAP memory tests for the lateralization of seizure focus in TLE patients.
12 Vonck 2000 ECD-SPECT Adult VNS induces rCBF changes immediately after initial stimulation that can be studied with SPECT.
16 Boussion 2000 SPECT Adult For patients with bilateral foci, the cerebellum appears to be a good compromise even though it presents with significant CBF changes.
65 Lawson 2000 HMPAO Children Ictal SPECT without MRI findings is useful for surgical localization.
34 with intractable focal epilepsy Skorupska 2000 HMPAO/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Children Performing both ictal and interictal SPECT studies may provide data about both seizure origin and its relationship with structurally abnormal regions of the brain.
13 Avery 2000 HMPAO Adult Ictal SPECT was more accurate than EEG/ MRI.
12 complex partial epilepsy Van Laere 2000 SPECT Both SPECT allows study of cerebral physiopathologic effects of vagus nerve electrostimulation in complex partial epilepsy.
1 San Pedro 2000 HMPAO Adult SPECT localization in conjunction with subdural electrode confirmation is a useful test in the pre-surgical evaluation of difficult to localize cingulate epilepsy.
17 Jha 2000 SPECT/ CT Adult SPECT studies repeated after 3 months may help to prognosticate cases with CESRL and also help in deciding the optimum duration of antiepileptic therapy in individual cases.
6 Sturm 2000 SPECT/ PET Adult Ictal SPECT can provide novel localizing data in MRI-negative occipital lobe epilepsy. Interictal SPECT is useful only as a baseline to aid in interpretation of ictal studies.
68 temporal lobe epilepsy Lee 2000 SPECT/ EEG Adult Pre-injection neuronal activity seems to be important for the accurate interpretation of the hyperperfused patterns of SPECT. Ictal SPECT is an independent and confirmatory presurgical evaluation technique.
21 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) Lemesle 2000 HMPAO Adult The probability to have an abnormal SPECT is correlated to the frequency of the epileptic fits. EEG recordings with sphenoidal electrodes and SPECT are sensitive and reliable in the diagnosis of mTLE.
1 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Ide 2000 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult SPECT is a useful method not only to determine the localization of regions associated with TLE but also to evaluate the effect of treatment.
65 Lawson 2000 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Children SPECT provided no additional prognostic benefit in patients who have a localized MRI lesion. In patients without lesions, ictal SPECT provides useful additional localization that may be used as a guide to intracranial implantation.
21 temporal lobe epilepsy Lee 2000 SPECT Adult SPM is an alternative diagnostic method for the localization or lateralization of the seizure focus in temporal lobe epilepsy and that SPECT could be omitted if a normal SPECT database were to be established.
2 complex partial seizure Umemura 2000 SPECT Adult Patients showed the interesting phenomenon of ‘crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion,’ a reversed crossed cerebellar diaschisis. The mechanism is probably spread of electrical seizure through efferent projections, and may be related to the cerebellar atrophy seen in patients with long-standing partial epilepsy.
19 Zubal 1999 HMPAO Adult By applying this perfusion pattern model and by noting the time of injection for peri-ictal images, an improved method for localizing the epileptogenic area is demonstrated.
98 partial epilepsy O’Brien 1999 ECD-SPECT/ HMPAO Adult The use of ECD results in earlier injections and less frequent postictal injections than unstabilized HMPAO, thereby enhancing the sensitivity and the specificity of peri-ictal SPECT for the localization of intractable partial epilepsy.
37 Kuji 1999 ECD-SPECT Both Age-related changes in cerebral ECD distribution were confirmed and found to be unaffected by the administration of anticonvulsant drugs.
1 Arnold 1999 SPECT Adult Ictal SPECT hyperperfusion reflects the activation of symptomatogenic cortex, which can be induced by both epileptic discharge and electrical stimulation.
2 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Baumgartner 1999 HMPAO/ EEG Adult SPECT provides further evidence that activation of a complex cortical network is responsible for the generation of ictal vomiting.
6 Yeni 1999 SPECT/ EEG Children Results were supportive for the concept of subcortical origin for the absence seizures and they were also promising for the diagnostic value of ictal SPECT in epileptic cases with undetermined origin.
19 unilateral mesiotemporal epilepsy Rougier 1999 Xe-SPECT Adult Asymmetrical interictal hippocampal perfusion was correlated with restricted unilateral ictal discharges, whereas bilateral hippocampal hypoperfusion was correlated with ictal discharges spreading to the contralateral mesiotemporal structures.
30 Sarikaya 1999 HMPAO Children SPECT parameters may be used for correlating with clinical parameters
10 Van Laere 1999 ECD-SPECT Adult Our findings may be consistent with the hypothesis that acute VNS reduces seizure onset or propagation through thalamic/ hippocampus inhibition.
15 Koh 1999 HMPAO/ EEG Children Findings indicate a correlation between ictal SPECT and ictal scalp EEG, especially when there are sustained rhythmic fast ictal EEG patterns.
118 Won 1999 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG/ PET Adult MRI, PET, and ictal SPECT correctly identified lesion in 72%, 85%, and 73% of patients.
71 Son 1999 SPECT/ MRI/ PET/ EEG Adult MRI, EEG and PET had comparable predictive values for Engel Class I. SPECT, neuropsychological testing, and the Wada test had less predictive values.
75 Oliveira 1999 ECD-SPECT Adult Ictal SPECT easily achieved and accurately localized epileptogenic zone in temporal and extratemporal epilepsies.
1 hemiconvulsions hemiplegia epilepsy Oe 1999 ECD-SPECT Adult The selective neuronal injures in this case of HHE syndrome will be mainly due to histotoxic factors in epileptic brain damage.
1 Motooka 1999 SPECT Adult The possibility of epileptic seizure originating from the occipital lobe should be considered in epileptic patients with psychosis with visual hallucination.
3 Biraben 1999 SPECT/ EEG Adult SPECT is unlikely to show misleading perfusion changes due to activation effects, and may aid diagnosis where there is muscle artefact on EEG.
11 with intractable partial epilepsy Spanaki 1999 SPECT/ EEG Adult Localization of ictal discharge during or before SPECT injection accurately determines increase or decrease in perfusion, and both are of equal validity in reflecting the region of epileptic discharge.
50 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE)/ 20 normals Allegri 1999 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Results showed the neuropsychological heterogeneity of TLE, thus ruling out the existence of a single specific cognitive pattern of impairment in all mTLE patients, and suggesting the need of a thorough pre-surgical neuropsychological evaluation to be used with post-surgical prognosis purposes.
1 Morioka 1999 HMPAO/ FDG-PET/ MRI Adult FDG-PET and HMPAO were found to be a useful complement to MRI for evaluating schizencephaly.
45 temporal lobe epilepsy Paladin 1999 HMPAO/ EEG Adult A possible explanation for focal radiopharmaceutical hypofixation is an increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier which can be responsible for HMPAO escape with a resultant hypofixation.
26 refractory partial epilepsy Chiron 1999 ECD SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Children Ictal SPECT seems to be a helpful technique to localize the onset of seizure and to guide the intracranial recording in childhood epilepsy.
25 de Silva 1999 HMPAO/ MRI Adult Some hypoperfusion of medial temporal structures occurs in the great majority of patients during the Wada test.
22 temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Kim 1999 IAP-SPECT/ HMPAO Adult IAP-SPECT with intratemporal ROIs may be useful for monitoring changes in neuronal function in the medial temporal region during IAP.
31 Adachi 1998 HMPAO Children Scatter and absorption corrections were most suitable method for brain SPECT in pediatrics.
28 Venz 1998 HMPAO/ 123I-IMZ-SPECT Adult In further studies, IMZ might be a helpful tool to find out subtle changes of the receptor affinity due to its approximately 30-fold higher ligand-receptor affinity compared to C-11-Flumazenil.
17 Asenbaum 1998 HMPAO/ ECD-SPECT Adult Direct comparisons of studies performed with HMPAO and ECD are not possible and the use of either tracer can be favorable in different clinical questions.
12 schizophrenia-like psychosis of epilepsy (SLPE)/ 11 schizophrenia/ 16 epilepsy Mellers 1998 HMPAO Adult Different patterns of activation observed in people with primary schizophrenia and SLPE suggests that different pathophysiological mechanisms may operate in these two groups.
8 Jha 1998 HMPAO Adult SPECT is more sensitive than CT and EEG in localizing an epileptogenic focus in cases of chronic epilepsy.
46 papers, meta-analysis Devous 1998 multiple all SPECT localization in patients with temporal lobe seizures were 0.44 (interictal), 0.75 (postictal) and 0.97 (ictal). False-positive rates low relative to diagnostic evaluation (7.4% for interictal and 1.5% for postictal studies)
59 O’Brien 1998 HMPAO Children Provides specific localizing information in a high proportion of these patients.
46 with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy Yune 1998 ECD-SPECT Adult The exact mechanism causing ipsilateral thalamic hypoperfusion is uncertain; however, corticothalamic diaschisis may be an important factor.
20 Guillon 1998 HMPAO Adult Interictal SPECT correlated with EEG irritative zone.
2 with temporal lobe epilepsy Baumgartner 1998 HMPAO/ EEG Adult rCBF changes observed on peri-ictal SPECT can’t be considered a mere consequence of EEG seizure activity but may rather reflect a change in neuronal activity precipitating the transition from the interictal to the ictal state.
1 Setoain 1998 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Interpretation of the peri-ictal SPECT should take into account EEG changes at the time or in the minutes immediately after injection of HMPAO.
42 with extratemporal epilepsy Noachtar 1998 ECD-SPECT/ EEG Adult Propagation of epileptic seizure activity should be considered when interpreting ictal SPECT studies in these patients.
17 unilateral partial epilepsy Kuji 1998 HMPAO/ IMZ-SPECT Adult The asymmetry of BP with IMZ-SPECT was demonstrated in patients with unilateral epilepsy that was not detectable by HMPAO.
54 medically refractory partial epilepsy Bohnen 1998 SPECT/ MRI Adult Peri-ictal changes in cerebellar perfusion, particularly CCH, are common in patients with intractable partial epilepsy.
8 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) Shindo 1998 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Children The dipole tracing method is useful for localizing epileptogenic areas in patients with mTLE.
49 medically non-refractory cryptogenic complex partial seizures Matheja 1998 ECD-SPECT/ IMZ-SPECT/ FDG-PET Adult In this group of patients, FDG-PET demonstrates abnormalities with the highest frequency of the three modalities studied, followed by IMZ and ECD.
87 Kharchenko 1998 HMPAO/ CT Adult There was no clear correlation between clinical manifestations and SPECT and CT findings.
8 epilepsy/ 6 normals Uchiyama 1997 123I-IMZ-SPECT Adult Results pointed to the involvement of the benzodiazepine receptor complex in epilepsy.
1 simple partial seizures characterized by aphasia Sakai 1997 SPECT Adult SPECT findings suggest that the frontal operculum of the dominant hemisphere is one of the regions that can give rise to epileptic aphasia.
15 Duncan 1997 HMPAO Adult Ictal SPECT may provide useful localizing information in frontal-lobe seizures.
19 temporal lobe epilepsy Lee 1997 SPECT/ EEG Adult SPECT was closely related with peri-injection EEG epochs but with frequent false lateralization. The role of SPECT as an independent confirmation test in pre-surgical evaluation should be reappraised.
1 Koc 1997 HMPAO/ EEG Children SPECT may provide valuable data in evaluation of neonatal seizures, particularly with poorly localized EEG changes and normal MRI scans.
10 Lancman 1997 ECD-SPECT Adult Because ECD has a longer decomposition time, true ictal studies are easier to obtain.
14 intractable temporal lobe epilepsy Cross 1997 HMPAO Children SPECT can help to understand the pathologic basis of abnormalities on scans. Furthermore, the presence of bilateral damage can result in an absence of perfusion asymmetry on interictal SPECT.
8 with SSMA seizures Laich 1997 HMPAO Adult Ictal SPECT is a useful method for seizure localization in patients with SSMA epilepsy.
67 medically intractable complex partial seizures (MI-CPS) Markand 1997 HMPAO/ FDG-SPECT Both Ictal SPECT and interictal PET are equally sensitive and reliable techniques in localizing the epileptogenic focus in patients with MI-CPS.
23 with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy Runge 1997 ECD-SPECT Adult Ictal ECD-SPECT is an effective method for demonstrating an epileptogenic focus.
18 Lamusuo 1997 HMPAO/ IMZ-SPECT/ FDG-PET Adult FDG-PET seemed to localize the epileptogenic cortex more accurately than interictal IMZ-SPECT in patients with complicated focal epilepsy.
4 unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) Rabinowicz 1997 SPECT/ EEG Adult SPECT demonstrated relative rCBF changes beyond the epileptogenic zone in unilateral TLE.
75 Kilpatrick 1997 SPECT/ MRI/ PET/ EEG Adult Non-invasive investigations successfully select most patients for temporal lobe surgery.
10 mesial temporal lobe epilepsy Hogan 1997 HMPAO/ MRI Adult Postictal SPECT shows distinctive perfusion patterns when co-registered with MRI, which assist in lateralization of temporal lobe seizures.
2 Blend 1997 HMPAO/ EEG Adult HMPAO was helpful in establishing the correct diagnosis in both cases.
1 Terada 1997 HMPAO Adult SPECT can provide important information suggesting the pathogenesis of memory disturbance associated with epilepsy.
10 symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy and cortical developmental malformations (CDM) Kuzniecky 1997 SPECT/ MRI/ EEG Both Occipital lobe CDM should be sought as a cause of symptomatic occipital lobe epilepsy even though they may become symptomatic after childhood.
1 Arroyo 1997 HMPAO Children Gelastic seizures associated with hypothalamic hamartomas are generated in the hypothalamus or in its neighboring regions and these seizures may cause paroxysmal dysfunction of the hypothalamopituitary axis.
2 De Leon 1997 HMPAO Adult HMPAO at the time of the ictal event provides a means to obtain a SPECT image postictally for comparison with interictal examinations so that an epileptic or nonepileptic focus may be localized.
33 focal epilepsy Vidal 1997 HMPAO Adult Anomalies found were more a result of the cause of the epilepsy than of the repetition of crises. SPECT should be included in the diagnostic algorithms of focal epilepsy with normal MRI.
35 intractable partial epilepsy Mastin 1997 SPECT/ PET Adult SPECT has low sensitivity and a high incorrect localization rate and should not be performed in these patients.
15 focal tonic seizures Ebner 1996 HMPAO/ FDG-PET/ MRI Both The spatial resolution of SPECT imaging might not be sufficient to reveal a small seizure focus.
41 partial epilepsy/ 6 normals Sozuer 1996 HMPAO Children Functional alterations on anatomically connected remote areas in patients with partial epilepsy are not related to the drug effect and probably due to primary epileptogenic activity.
7 Kapucu 1996 HMPAO/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Children The pattern of frontal rCBF alterations suggests that frontal lobe functions were implicated in the evolution of photosensitivity-related seizures in patients with pure photosensitive epilepsy.
7 Ianetti 1996 HMPAO Children SPECT has been considered a useful tool for accurately locating the epileptic focus.
1 with reflex epilepsy O’Brien 1996 SPECT/ MRI Adult Ictal SPECT showed an area of hyperfusion that corresponded to the MRI lesion on co-registration with a surface-matching technique. A subsequent co-registered interictal SPECT scan demonstrated hypoperfusion in the same region.
26 severe therapy resistant epilepsy Vattimo 1996 ECD-SPECT Children SPECT is sensitive in detecting and localizing hypoperfused areas that could be associated with epileptic foci in this group of patients, even when MRI image is normal.
14 Menzel 1996 ECD-SPECT Children Interictal SPECT showed hypoperfusion areas in 80%.
45 Matsuda 1996 HMPAO Adult Interictal SPECT gives useful information about epileptic focus and antiepileptic drugs.
20 Rodrigues 1996 HMPAO Adult Focal hypoperfusion in 93%, ictal hyperperfusion in all.
12 complex partial seizures Won 1996 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Crossed cerebellar hyperperfusion is a frequent finding of ictal brain SPECT and may aid in the lateralization of epileptic foci.
30 Ho 1996 HMPAO Adult SPECT helpful for subclassification of TLE.
80 complex partial seizures Duncan 1996 HMPAO Adult Data suggest a single insult operating early in life as a cause of temporal hypoperfusion, as has been shown for mesial temporal sclerosis.
10 refractory epilepsy Packard 1996 SPECT/ EEG Children Ictal SPECT is a promising tool for the identification of epileptogenic foci than interictal SPECT or scalp EEG in patients without focal abnormalities on MRI.
58 drug-resistant partial epilepsy Andersen 1996 HMPAO/ EEG Adult The percentage of patients with abnormal SPECT-CBF or the total number of abnormal ROIs per patient showed no correlation to duration of epilepsy or seizure load or seizure type.
1 intractable right temporal lobe epilepsy Takahashi 1996 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult If results of various non-invasive studies are discrepant as to the epileptogenic area, invasive studies using, for example, subdural EEG monitoring are necessary to determine the responsible area.
10 medically intractable epilepsy Nagata 1995 HMPAO/ FDG-PET Adult FDG-PET is a valuable tool for accurate localization of epileptic foci. SPECT, however, may not always be paralleled to metabolism visualized on FDG-PET images.
35 temporal lobe epilepsy Ho 1995 SPECT/ PET Adult False lateralization is rare with ictal SPECT and can be explained when interpreted in conjunction with electroclinical data.
119 unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy Newton 1995 SPECT Adult The brevity of many extratemporal seizures means that true SPECT examinations can be difficult to achieve, but the high diagnostic yield justifies the special organizational effort needed to obtain such studies.
15 therapy resistant partial complex seizures Sjoholm 1995 123I-IMZ-SPECT/ HMPAO Adult In these patients a mismatch between the locations of abnormalities in IMZ and HMPAO scans were often found but benzodiazepine receptor abnormalities were more circumscribed in these patients.
10 severe myoclonic epilepsy (SME) Nieto 1995 HMPAO/ CT/ MRI/ EEG Children SME could be considered as multi-focal epilepsy brought on by secondary structural irregularities.
16 status epileptics (SE) Ichiseki 1995 HMPAO/ EEG Adult SPECT is a very simple and non-invasive method that demonstrates abnormalities of brain function exactly. Therefore, we should perform not only EEG but also SPECT scans when making a diagnosis of SE.
21 Alper 1995 HMPAO Children Pathology on SPECT, CT, and EEG were 67%, 38%, and 52%, respectively. SPECT showed congruent, or more extensive, lesions in 8 patients with CT lesions. Six of 13 with normal CT, had abnormal SPECT.
14 with intractable complex partial seizures Cross 1995 HMPAO Children SPECT may provide data about both the seizure origin and its relationship to structurally abnormal regions of the brain.
16 Lynch 1995 HMPAO/ EEG Children Interictal SPECT imaging, when positively correlated with the ictal EEG focus, may have prognostic value for outcome of cortical resections for epilepsy in children.
1 reading epilepsy Miyamoto 1995 HMPAO/ EEG Children Ictal SPECT is a useful technique for seizure localization in reading epilepsy.
55 Otsubo 1995 HMPAO Children Interictal/ postictal SPECT can lead to greater accuracy in localizing epileptic foci
27 refractory complex partial seizures Yacubian 1995 SPECT/ EEG Adult There were no significant correlations between SPECT findings and clinical parameters or EEG slowing in the temporal lobes.
20 refractory partial epilepsy Tatum 1995 HMPAO Adult Interictal SPECT with HMPAO with a single-headed gamma camera does not add useful information in pre-operative localization or predicting postoperative seizure relief.
10 frontal or central epilepsy Vera 1995 123I-IMP-SPECT/ HMPAO/ EEG Both Although this was a retrospective study, it provides qualitative data regarding the significance of inter-ictal SPECT abnormalities in frontal or central epilepsy.
40 epilepsy/ 10 normals Schmitz 1995 HMPAO/ MRI/ EEG Adult Quantification of blood flow in multiple brain regions revealed that hypoperfusion did not occur at random. These hypoperfused areas probably reflect dysfunctioning areas which are related to the epileptogenic process.
12 Zubal 1995 HMPAO/ MRI Adult Registration of SPECT and MRI together with calculated difference maps greatly enhances the ability to localize epileptic seizure foci.
10 epilepsy with continuous spike waves in slow-wave sleep (CSWS) Gaggero 1995 HMPAO/ EEG Children In this type of epilepsy, SPECT reveals focal cortical areas of decreased CBF which correlated generally to the predominant sites of EEG abnormalities.
1 Matsuda 1995 HMPAO/ EEG/ MRI Adult SPECT may be useful for appropriate diagnosis of gray matter heterotopia and for detection of functionally focal abnormality associated with epilepsy.
20 Feggi 1995 HMPAO Children In pediatric patients with partial epilepsy, SPECT is able to detect changes in cerebral blood flow which probably correspond to the epileptogenic foci.
51 intractable epilepsy Zhou 1994 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult Results showed that the sensitivity rate of localization with SPECT for corticoepileptogenic focus location was 97.87%.
80 Krolicki 1994 HMPAO Adult It seems that radioisotopic techniques may be helpful in localization epileptic foci.
20 Venz 1994 123I-IMZ-SPECT/ HMPAO/ EEG Adult IMZ had a higher sensitivity and a lower specificity in the detection of decreased rcd in areas with EEG findings that indicate an epileptogenic focus compared with HMPAO.
13 status epilepticus Tatum 1994 HMPAO/ EEG Adult HMPAO scan demonstrating focal hyperperfusion in a patient being evaluated for partial status epilepticus is nonspecific. However, a SPECT scan demonstrating no area of focal hyperperfusion argues against the diagnosis of partial status.
18 complex partial seizures Yacubian 1994 HMPAO/ MRI/ EEG Adult Positive SPECT findings may be at least as prevalent in neocortical as in mesiolimbic epilepsy.
73 unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy Newton 1994 SPECT Adult Injection of ligand during seizures is the method of choice for SPECT to aid the non-invasive lateralization of temporal seizure foci.
14 parietal lobe epilepsy Ho 1994 HMPAO Adult Ictal SPECT is helpful for localization of parietal seizures. Parietal hyperperfusion is discrete and short-lived, demanding true ictal injections for diagnostic studies.
1 Kuikka 1994 HMPAO/ EEG Adult SPECT shows late ictal/ early postictal hypoactivity which might represent the primary change in neuronal metabolism rather than the secondary change in cerebral blood flow.
9 partial epilepsy Jibiki 1994 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Results suggest that background EEG and rCBF changes in epileptic patients are closely coupled.
12 focal seizures Palma 1994 SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Children Complex partial epilepsy is a good biological model to investigate the neurogenic control of cerebral flow and metabolism.
16 Grunwald 1994 ECD SPECT Adult ECD is an effective marker of cerebral perfusion imaging in epilepsy. In comparison to other tracers, it has a high in vitro stability and is therefore particularly useful for ictal studies in the very early phase after seizure onset.
33 medically intractable partial seizures Venz 1994 123I-IMZ-SPECT/ HMPAO Adult IMZ-SPECT had a significantly higher sensitivity than HMPAO in the visualization of an epileptogenic area and should be regularly used in the diagnostic of medically intractable partial seizures.
10 Coubes 1993 HMPAO/ FDG-PET Adult Interictal FDG-PET and HMPAO provide the same type of information on the side of the epileptogenic zone in cases with clearly unilateral epileptogenicity, with abnormalities more intense and more extensive on PET.
2 Jibiki 1993 123I-IMP-SPECT Adult Temporo-limbic dysfunction, in particular hyperfunction in the temporo-limbic system in the left dominant hemisphere, arises at the time of the psychotic state in epileptic psychosis.
28 Duncan 1993 HMPAO Adult Ictal/ postictal SPECT reliable for pre-surgical localization of complex partial seizures
1 Kuzniecky 1993 HMPAO Children Case emphasized the usefulness of ictal SPECT scans in patients with seizures nonlocalizable by electroencephalography being evaluated for epilepsy surgery.
9 Otsubo 1993 HMPAO/ MRI/ CT/ EEG Children MRI can detect focal cortical dysplasia, which corresponds to the epileptogenic focus on EEG, and SPECT may help to detect a functional abnormality in the same region.
10 Grunwald 1993 HMPAO Adult At present, receptor SPECT has not yet reached clinical significance in the diagnosis of epilepsy.
22 frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE) Harvey 1993 HMPAO Children SPECT has the potential to (1) localize seizures in patients with intractable FLE, and (2) advance understanding of the in vivo anatomico-clinical relationships of frontal lobe seizures.
40 intractable partial epilepsy Spina 1993 HMPAO/ EEG Children SPECT provides more precise detection of epileptogenic foci when used to complement EEG.
1 Green 1993 HMPAO/ EEG/ MRI Children This case indicates that SPECT is a useful tool in the evaluation of even the youngest patients with seizures.
14 Heiskala 1993 HMPAO/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Children SPECT was more sensitive in detecting abnormalities than EEG, CT or MRI.
24 partial seizures Mitsuyoshi 1993 123I-IMP-SPECT/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Children IMP was useful in locating the epileptic focus, particularly during the early period after the onset of partial seizures when the EEG gave inconclusive results.
4 intractable seizures Bye 1993 SPECT/ EEG Children SPECT studies contributed to an understanding of the pathogenesis of seizure initiation and propagation in the patients studied.
63 medically intractable complex partial seizures Duncan 1992 HMPAO/ EEG Both It is not yet possible to predict clinically those patients who will exhibit perfusion defects on interictal HMPAO scanning.
47 partial epilepsy Launes 1992 HMPAO Adult Abnormalities of regional brain uptake shown by SPECT in patients with partial epilepsy and normal CT give further information about pathophysiology in partial epilepsy; this may be of use both for selecting therapy and in pre-surgical localization of foci.
10 Janicek 1992 HMPAO/ EEG Children Quantitative evaluation of brain perfusion scans provides: (a) objective estimates of interictal rCBF; (b) more precise detection of epileptogenic foci, when used to complement EEG.
11 Marks 1992 HMPAO Adult Because electroencephalographic localization is often elusive in extratemporal seizures, ictal SPECT may be very helpful for the localization of extratemporal foci.
12 refractory temporal lobe epilepsy Newton 1992 SPECT Adult Data provide critical information for interpreting scans which can be used in the localization of epileptic foci.
1 reflex epilepsy Lisovoski 1992 SPECT/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Adult Result of SPECT suggests a localized functional disturbance in the emergence of the disorder.
18 partial seizures Michihiro 1992 SPECT/ EEG Children Repeated SPECT for observing the time-course changes of the regional CBF represents a useful technique with can be applied in evaluating the therapeutic efficacy or deciding the time to discontinue treatment and for pathogenetic elucidation of the epileptic foci.
20 Ryvlin 1992 HMPAO/ FDG-PET/ MRI Adult Only patients with a large and pronounced hypometabolism on PET images exhibited hypoperfusion on SPECT. Superiority of PET did not prove clinically useful in patients whose SPECT was abnormal, particularly when brain MRI showed nonspecific changes in the epileptogenic temporal lobe.
15 Buchpiguel 1992 HMPAO/ PET/ MRI/ EEG Adult Despite the small number and heterogenicity of the present sample, SPECT seems to be a useful tool as part of the clinical workup of epileptic patients who are candidates for epilepsy surgery.
28 partial epilepsy Verhoeff 1992 HMPAO/ X-CT/ EEG Adult The value of SPECT studies in partial epilepsy may be improved by increasing the resolution of the SPECT system and by simultaneous EEG monitoring.
20 partial epilepsy Adams 1992 HMPAO/ CT/ EEG Children SPECT may be considered a valuable additional diagnostic procedure in the evaluation of epilepsy surgery candidates in that it adds to the evidence of abnormality at the involved site.
23 complex partial seizures Dietrich 1991 IMP-SPECT/ EEG/ MRI Adult SPECT scan appears to be useful in interictal localization of seizure foci. Postictal scans may also be useful, although our numbers are too small to draw conclusions.
38 medically intractable complex partial seizures Markand 1992 HIPDM-SPECT/ EEG Adult SPECT can be easily obtained and provides reliable localizing information in the epileptic patients being considered for temporal lobectomy.
2 Kanazawa 1991 HMPAO Children HMPAO is useful in investigation of the etiological mechanisms of seizures and epileptic discharges in epileptic disorders in childhood.
40 Grunwald 1991 HMPAO Adult Pre-operative interictal SPECT can contribute to the prediction of postoperative verbal memory function. This method should be considered for use prior to temporal lobectomy.
79 Uvebrant 1991 HMPAO Children SPECT relevant information in 79% of cases, MRI 49% and CT 36%.
51 intractable temporal lobe epilepsy Rowe 1991 HMPAO/ EEG Adult Usefulness of interictal HMPAO for pre-operative seizure focus localization is limited by low sensitivity when performed with a conventional rotating gamma camera.
13 therapy resistant epilepsy Abdel-Dayem 1991 HMPAO/ X-CT/ EEG Children HMPAO was sensitive in detecting perfusion abnormalities and localizing epileptic foci in this group of patients.
21 Shimizu 1991 123I-IMP-SPECT/ EEG Adult IMP-SPECT may provide useful information for evaluating foci in patients with epilepsy.
52 focal epilepsy Cordes 1990 HMPAO/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Adult SPECT findings correlated well with the foci shown by EEG, both with regard to the sides affected and the locations of the regions of altered perfusion.
20 partial seizures Gangemi 1990 HMPAO/ MRI Adult Data supported the usefulness of MRI and SPECT in the completion of pre-surgical assessment in this kind of patients.
34 Shen 1990 HMPAO Adult Intericta/ ictal SPECT easily obtained and provides reliable information in presurgical evaluation of intractable epilepsy
18 with idiopathic seizures Hara 1990 123I-IMP-SPECT/ X-CT/ EEG/ MRI Children SPECT is useful in the diagnosis and medical treatment of children with seizures.
40 temporal lobe epilepsy Duncan 1990 SPECT/ CT/ EEG Adult Results of this study support the usefulness of SPECT in detecting lateralizing abnormalities in temporal lobe epilepsy.
13 Jibiki 1990 123I-IMP-SPECT Adult High reproducibility supports the usefulness of SPECT scans in the regional diagnosis of epileptic foci.
17 medically intractable complex partial seizures van Huffelen 1990 123I-IMZ-SPECT/ FDG-PET/ MRI Adult IMZ specifically reflects functional changes in the membranes of neurons while FDG-PET is related to glucose metabolism not only of neurons but also of glial cells.
38 partial seizures Vles 1990 HMPAO/ CT/ EEG/ NMR Children SPECT gives valuable additional information, which might target treatment. SPECT was superior to CT and NMR with respect to the depiction of some kind of abnormality.
60 Iivanainen 1990 SPECT/ EEG/ CT/ MRI Children SPECT must be related to findings obtained by clinical and other laboratory methods to be helpful.
14 Qu 1989 SPECT/ EEG/ CT Adult SPECT is useful for localizing epileptogenic foci in epileptics.
38 with partial seizures Kawamura 1989 123I-IMP-SPECT Adult We determined that the IMP-SPECT (delayed image) could be useful in patients with the epileptic lesions unable to be detected on the IMP-SPECT (early image).
67 Chiron 1989 Xe-SPECT Children In children as with adults, cerebral functional imaging provides new data which contribute to the localization and follow-up of epileptic foci.
19 with complex partial seizures LaManna 1989 123I-IMP-SPECT/ EEG Adult IMP-SPECT is a useful tool for localizing epileptogenic foci and their associated dynamic deficits.
3 Lang 1988 HMPAO Adult Dynamics of interictal changes could only be assessed by brain SPECT.
16 with medically intractable complex partial seizures Lee 1988 HIPDM-SPECT Adult HIPDM-SPECT was particularly useful for investigating epileptic foci, and correlation with simultaneously recorded ictal electroencephalograms provided further insight for localizing epileptic foci.
74 seizure patients/ 28 normals Podreka 1988 HMPAO Adult SPECT is valuable for the detection of rCBF abnormalities in seizure patients and patients with partial seizures.
18 seizures/ 32 normals Bonte 1983 SPECT Adult SPECT determination of rCBF has demonstrated a number of findings recently observed with PET and may become a useful modality in the study of patients who have epilepsy.
Total patients Total authors Total studies
7,382 253 253


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