Since the 1980s, there have been thousands of scientific papers on brain SPECT imaging for evaluating many psychiatric and neurological disorders. The Amen Clinics' research library contains our own scientific research along with abstracts of thousands of studies from the U.S. and around the world.



#Patients/Healthy First Author Study Date Type Age Range Comments
92 Gowda 2006 ECD-SPECT/CT Both ECD-SPECT can be used as a complementary technique to CT in initial evaluation of patients with MTBI.
40 Carpentier 2006 MRS/MRI Adult Combined MRI and MRS provide a reliable evaluation of patients presenting in deep coma, especially when there are insufficient MRI lesions of the consciousness pathways to explain their status. In the first few days post-trauma metabolic and morphological MRI studies can predict the long-term neurological outcome.
55 de la Cueva 2006 FDG-PET/MRI/CT Adult FDG-PET diagnoses major number of injuries that traditional neuroimaging and demonstrates a high thalamic vulnerability, with injuries in up to 76% of patients with severe TBI.
34 Lotze 2006 fMRI Adult Observations raise the hypothesis that the magnitude of the fMRI signal change in the cSM1 region could have prognostic value in the evaluation of patients with TBI.
20/20 normals Schmitz 2006 fMRI Adult Results suggest that one’s post-injury level of self-referential insight is related to a network inclusive of the medial and right dorsal PFC.
98, 50 of which are in a persistent vegetative state (PVS) Kotchoubey 2005 PET Adult The data show that in a subpopulation of PVS patients with preserved thalamocortical feedback connections, remaining cortical information processing is a consistent finding and may even involve semantic levels of processing.
1 Ogai 2005 SPECT Adult Findings suggest that the right orbitofrontal region may be important in forming OCD symptoms.
102 Chieregato 2005 Xe-CT Adult In traumatic hematomas rCBF levels were lower in the core than in the low density area, suggesting that rCBF in edematous area is marginally involved in the initial injury and that edema is probably influenced by the persistence of the hemorrhagic core. Conversely, in the traumatic contusions a difference in rCBF values was found between core, low density area and perilesional area, indicating that rCBF of the low density area is related to a concentrical distribution of the initial injury.
32 Lemka 2005 SPECT/CT/MRI Children In all children no changes were found in CT and MRI examinations. SPECT shows great usefulness in the assessment of consequences of head trauma and it can explain some posttraumatic complaints in children.
30 Angrawal 2005 SPECT Children SPECT scans may help in the early identification of children prone to develop PPCS, and serial SPECT scanning may serve as a platform for testing the efficiency of various neurobehavioral and pharmacological interventions in these patients.
17 Korn 2005 HMPAO/QEEG Adult These data point to focal cortical dysfunction in conjunction with BBB disruption and hypoperfusion as a possible mechanism of pathogenesis in at least some PCS patients, and offer QEEG and SPECT as important tools in evaluating these patients.
11 O’Connell 2005 FDG-PET Adult Results suggest that increases in glucose utilization as assessed by FDG-PET albeit in mainly healthy tissue are associated with increases in dialysate lactate, pyruvate, L/G and the P/G ratio perhaps indicating a general rise in metabolism rather than a shift towards non-oxidative metabolism.
19 Vespa 2005 PET Adult Traumatic brain injury leads to a state of persistent metabolic crisis as reflected by abnormal cerebral microdialysis LPR that is not related to ischemia.
10/16 normals Wu 2004 FDG-PET/MRI Adult This pervasive finding may indicate that the concept of focal traumatic injury, although valid from a computed tomographic imaging standpoint, may be misleading when considering metabolic derangements associated with TBI.
1 Stephane 2004 SPECT Adult The SPECT scan performed indicated an increase in regional cerebral blood flow in the left temporal lobe and in the brainstem.
77 Hlatky 2004 Xe-CT Adult In patients with CBF<18 mL/100 g/minutes, intracranial hypertension plays a major role in the reduction in CBF. Treatment would be directed at controlling intracranial pressure, but the early, severe intracranial hypertension also indicates TBI. For levels of CBF between 18 and 40 mL/100 g/minutes, the presence of regional hypoperfusion was a more important factor in reducing the average CBF.
16 Chen 2004 fMRI Adult These results demonstrate the potential of fMRI, in conjunction with the working memory task, to identify an underlying pathology in symptomatic concussed individuals with normal structural imaging results.
28 Al-Shammri 2004 HMPAO 17-63 Findings indicate that brain perfusion imaging is reliable, reproducible, noninvasive and simple to perform for the confirmation of brain death and as such we recommend it as an alternative to exhaustive neurophysiological tests and invasive catheter angiography.
1 Kujiraoka 2004 SPECT/MRI Child MRI and SPECT can determine the surgical indications for chronic SDH in patients with cortical atrophy.
5 Laatsch 2004 fMRI Adult This study demonstrates how fMRI can illustrate the neurobiological mechanisms of recovery in individual subjects. The variability in subject responses to cognitive rehabilitation therapy supports the notion of tailoring rehabilitation strategies to each subject in order to optimize recovery following brain injury.
21 Hattori 2004 FDG-PET Adult Brain tissue kinetics in TBI patients were consistent with reduced hexokinase activity in the whole brain, whereas glucose transport was impaired only in the area immediately around the contusion.
5/5 normals Chen 2003 FDG-PET Adult Persistent post-concussive symptoms may not be associated with resting state hypometabolism. A cognitive challenge may be necessary to detect cerebral changes associated with mild head trauma.
80 Abe 2003 SPECT/MRI/CT Adult Most of the ischemic brain damage noted was because of arterial compression secondary to the brain shift and brain herniation, rather than the direct effect of the hematoma. Ischemic brain damage adversely affects outcome morbidity, and the difficulty in preventing ischemic damage in cases with marked brain shift leads to poor outcome in patients with ASDHs.
28 males
20 matched normals
Bonne 2003 HMPAO Adult MTBI patients showed regions of hypoperfusion in frontal, pre-frontal and temporal cortices, and sub-cortical structures. Hypoperfusion in ‘frontal’ ‘left posterior’ and to a lesser extent ‘sub-cortical’ sub-group were concordant with neuropsychological localization. This was not the case for the ‘right posterior’ group, where no concordance was found. The rCBF is reduced in symptomatic patients with longstanding MTBI and unremarkable structural brain imaging.
8 Audenaert 2003 HMPAO/NPT Adult Single-headed 57Co-SPECT is able to show the site and extent of brain damage in patients with mild TBI, even in the absence of structural lesions. It may confirm and localize NPT findings.
16 in PVS/7 normals Beuthien-Baumann 2003 SPECT/PET Adult The overall reduction of 58% of glucose metabolism in grey matter structures is in accordance with other PET studies investigating PVS patients with different disease histories.
16/18 normals Hattori 2003 PET Adult Regional brain edema is likely to occur in contusion and pericontusion areas, while some of the contusional tissue may show vascular engorgement.
5 Scheibel 2003 fMRI Adult Severe diffuse TBI results in recruitment of additional neural resources for cognitive control.
16 Lorberboym 2002 SPECT Adult SPECT evaluation in the emergency department may be a useful tool in the objective assessment of posttraumatic amnesia.
20 Umile 2002 SPECT/MRI/CT/PET Adult Patients with TBI and persistent postconcussive symptoms have a high incidence of temporal lobe injury, which may explain the frequent finding of memory disorders in this population. The abnormal temporal lobe findings on PET and SPECT in humans may be analogous to the neuropathologic evidence of medial temporal injury provided by animal studies after TBI.
15 Kahveci 2002 HMPAO 15-48 SPECT study is valuable to diagnose and confirm BD with spinal automatism in adults and children.
61 Stamatakis 2002 HMPAO/MRI Adult SPM has a role in SPECT image interpretation because it allows better visualization than other methods of quantitative analysis of the spatial distribution of abnormalities in focal and diffuse head injury.
9/7 normals Christodoulou 2001 fMRI Adult Impairment of working memory in TBI seems to be associated with alterations in functional cerebral activity.
1 Moritz 2001 fMRI Adult Results indicate that fMRI examinations may provide a useful evaluation for brain function in non-responsive brain trauma patients.
54 Bergsneider 2001 FDG-PET Adult Quantitative FDG-PET cannot be used as a surrogate technique for estimating degree of global functional recovery following TBI.
24 Baulieu 2001 ECD-SPECT Adult Valuable in predicting neuropsychological behavior after severe injury
21 Hoffman 2001 HMPAO/MRI Adult Brain lesions are common after minor TBI.
228 Abu-Judeh 2000 SPECT Both We conclude that basal ganglia hypoperfusion is the most common abnormality following TBI. SPECT brain perfusion abnormalities can occur in the absence of LOC.
21 Burger 2000 HMPAO/EEG Both Planar scintigraphy and SPECT gave completely corresponding results in all 21 patients.
13 Fontaine 1999 FDG-PET/CT/MRI Adult Results suggest a predominant role of prefrontal and cingulate dysfunction in cognitive and behavioral disorders of patients with severe traumatic brain injury, even in the absence of focal structural lesion of the brain.
100 Lemka 1999 EEG Children The important risk factors for the occurrence of posttraumatic headache were the age of child at the time of injury and the period of unconsciousness. The EEG remains the important additional examination of posttraumatic consequences.
16 Stepien 1999 HMPAO Adult SPECT is useful in the assessment of the consequences of head trauma.
5 Laatsch 1999 HMPAO
Before and after cognitive rehab
Adult Increases in rCBF can be seen following cognitive rehab training and changes related NPT improvement 2 years post TBI.
32 Abu-Judeh 1999 HMPAO 11-61 (1) SPECT valuable and sensitive for evaluation of rCBF changes following mild TBI; (2) these changes can occur without loss of consciousness; (3) SPECT is more sensitive than CT in detecting brain lesions; and (4) changes may explain a neurological component of the patient’s symptoms in the absence of abnormalities using other imaging modalities.
1 Abu-Judeh 1998 HMPAO Adult This case demonstrates the possibility of discordance between brain perfusion and glucose uptake in mild TBI.
36 Lyczak 1998 HMPAO Adult Aminophylline test may be useful in the assessment of perfusion reserve in post-traumatic focus.
13 Bicik 1998 HMPAO/FDG-PET/MRI Adult We do not recommend FDG-PET or HMPAO as a diagnostic tool in routine examinations of patients with late whiplash syndrome.
4 Umile 1998 SPECT Adult Analysis of composite data showed that test performance predicted SPECT findings, but SPECT findings did not predict test performance.
50 comatose patients Facco 1998 HMPAO 10 days-75 years Results confirm the reliability of SPECT in the diagnosis of BD. A problem arises about its effectiveness in brain-dead children, but this seems to be a matter of definition of BD and cerebral viability, rather than a limit of SPECT.
228 Abdel-Dayem 1998 HMPAO/ECD-SPECT 11-88 41 patients who had mild TBI without LOC had normal CT, but 28 SPECT studies were abnormal.
26 Shiina 1998 123I-SPECT Adult Good correlation between patient outcome and CBF values.
1/5 normals Werring 1998 fMRI/diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) Adult Study shows for the first time the potential value of combining fMRI and DTI together to investigate mechanisms of recovery and persistent deficit in an individual patient.
30 Adelson 1997 Xe-SPECT 1 mo – 8years Younger age, low CBF shortly after TBI, and a CO2 vasoreactivity were associated with a poor outcome.
32 Mitchener 1997 HMPAO/CT/ MRI Adult 10 patients with residual SPECT abnormalities and 8 with residual MRI lesions were graded clinically in the upper band of good recovery.
6 Otte 1997 ECD-SPECT/PET Adult Whiplash group showed significant hypometabolism and hypoperfusion in the parieto-occipital regions compared to the control group.
20 Emanuelson 1997 SPECT/CT Children CT and SPECT showed similar results in the patients with severe injury, but in the group of mildly injured children the scores indicated by SPECT were significantly higher than those indicated by CT.
2 Hirano 1997 HMPAO/CT Adult SPECT or transcranial Doppler monitoring should be used for the early detection of posttraumatic vasospasm.
35 Gilkey 1997 Xe-SPECT Adult Patients with post traumatic headache have reduced rCBF, and regional and hemispheric asymmetries.
43 Kant 1997 HMPAO Adult SPECT seems to be more sensitive in detecting cerebral abnormalities after mild TBI than either CT or MRI.
28 Bergsneider 1997 FDG-PET Adult Results of this study indicate that the metabolic state of the traumatically injured brain should be defined differentially in terms of glucose and oxygen metabolism. The use of FDG-PET demonstrates that hyperglycolysis occurs both regionally and globally following severe head injury in humans.
136 Jacobs 1996 HMPAO Adult At 12 months post injury, a positive SPECT study is also a reliable predictor for clinical outcome.
53 Sakas 1996 SPECT/CT/MRI Adult Posttraumatic hyperemia may occur across a wide spectrum of head injury severity and may be associated with favorable outcome.
50 Furtak 1996 HMPAO Adult Focal reduction of blood flow was demonstrated in 47 cases, mostly in the temporal area (78%).
28 Goshen 1996 HMPAO/CT/ MRI Children SPECT is useful when evaluating pediatric post-TBI patients in whom other methods are not successful.
23 patients/12 controls Nagamachi 1995 CT/123I-IMP SPECT Adult 123I-IMP SPECT is useful for demonstrating brain dysfunction in morphologically intact brain regions and for providing objective evidence to account for patients with chronic TBI.
34boxers/34controls Kemp 1995 HMPAO Adult SPECT showed controls had fewer aberrations in cerebral perfusion than the boxers.
40 comatose Bonetti 1995 HMPAO/CT Adult In patients in whom perfusion was seen on brain scans, HMPAO SPECT improved assessment of the extent of injury, which in general was larger than suggested by CT.
2 Maeshima 1995 HMPAO Adult Damage to the right frontal lobes of these patients was confirmed as being the cause of the unilateral spatial neglect in accordance with the results of CBF studies.
20 Ivanov 1995 HMPAO Children Brain trauma characterized by multiple ischemic deficits in the damaged and intact hemispheres and basal parts of the brain
9 Ruff 1994 CT/MRI/PET Adult The PET procedure documented neuropathology which frequently was pronounced in the frontal and anteriotemporo-frontal regions.
3 Fumeya 1994 SPECT/CT Adult These findings distinguish cerebellar concussion from cerebellar contusion and suggest that the synergistic effect of trauma and ischemia may be the pathophysiological basis of this unusual syndrome.
10 Bavetta 1994 HMPAO Adult Lesions in the temporal lobes, frontal lobes and basal ganglia are related to poor prognosis, and SPECT yields more useful prognostic data than the other methods.
14 Masdeu 1994 HMPAO Adult SPECT is more sensitive than CT in detecting brain injury after mild head trauma.
67 Jacobs 1994 HMPAO Adult (1) SPECT alterations correlate well with the severity of the trauma; (2) a negative initial SPECT study is a reliable predictor of a favorable clinical outcome; (3) in cases with a positive initial SPECT, a follow-up consisting of a combination of SPECT and clinical data is necessary.
29 Ichise 1994 HMPAO Adult SPECT is a more sensitive study than CT or MRI, and can be useful in showing dysfunction in morphologically intact brain regions and providing objective evidence for some of the impaired NP performance.
20 Nedd 1993 HMPAO Adult SPECT more sensitive in evaluation of lesions in mild to moderate TBI.
4 Septien 1993 HMPAO Adult Decrease of frontal blood flow that allowed to link the neuropsychological symptom to a frontal lobe disorder
20 Nagamachi 1993 123I-SPECT Adult SPECT more sensitive than CT.
18 Prayer 1993 HMPAO Adult Synthesis of MR and SPECT information enhanced the ability both to accurately assess TBI and to improve patients’ outcome prediction.
12 Yamakami 1993 HMPAO Adult The type of TBI, focal or diffuse, determines the type of CBF change.
68 Cusumano 1992 HMPAO Adult Tests confirmed the higher predictive reliability of both neurophysiological and SPECT compared to CT findings.
36 Oder 1992 HMPAO Adult Highest correlation was between
frontal flow indices and disinhibitive behavior. The severity of disinhibition increased with lower frontal flow rates.
19 Newton 1992 HMPAO/MRI/CT Adult Most lesions shown by SPECT were not shown by CT or MRI in the corresponding anatomical regions.
53 Gray 1992 HMPAO Adult SPECT is a useful technique to demonstrate regional brain dysfunction in the presence of morphological integrity as assessed by CT.
36 Goldenberg 1992 HMPAO Adult Memory tests were not associated with temporal lobe dysfunction and thalamic abnormalities showed highest correlation to neuropsychological tests.
14 Goncalves 1992 HMPAO Adult SPECT is a better technique than CT or NMR in demonstrating the organic basis of some neurological deficits observed after TBI.
1 Tokuda 1991 Xe-SPECT/ CT/MRI Adult The present case suggests that head trauma might be one of the provoking or promoting factors of AD.
20 Torigoe 1991 123I-SPECT 4-20 A statistically significant reduction in blood flow occurred in the occipital lobe and cerebellum.
12 Oder 1991 HMPAO Adult SPECT may help to improve outcome prediction in patients with traumatic PVS.
15 Roper 1991 HMPAO Adult Two types of contusions: those with a decreased cerebral blood flow and those with a cerebral blood flow equal to that of the surrounding brain.
32 Marion 1991 Xe-SPECT Adult Global CBF values vary widely depending on the type of TBI, and brain-stem flow is often not accurately reflected by global CBF values.
8 Choksey 1991 HMPAO Adult SPECT studies with 99Tcm-HMPAO are of possible use as predictors of late deterioration in the management of traumatic intracerebral haematomas.
9 Berlit 1990 HMPAO/EEG Adult HMPAO SPECT is a reliable noninvasive method in the determination of brain death. It is especially helpful in cases with persisting focal cortical EEG activity.
10 Ducours 1990 123I-SPECT Adult Nine out of ten of those with LOC had normal CT scans and evident photopaenia in IMP studies.
12 Barclay 1985 Xe-SPECT 18-26 Results suggest that the sequelae of head injury include decreased CBF, presumably reflecting decreased cerebral metabolism, which correlates with the neuropsychological impairment
5 Rao 1984 CT/PET Adult PET findings correspond with the site and extent of cerebral dysfunction inferences derived from the neurologic and behavioral examinations but the CT findings did not; the follow-up CT scans, however, showed structural that were consistent with the PET.
Total SPECT Total PET Total MRI/fMRI Total CT Total EEG
72 17 25 18 2
Total patients Total authors Total Studies
3145 83 96


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